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Test Bank Psychology in Action 9th Edition by Huffman

Complete downloadable file at:



https://testbanku.eu/Test-Bank-Psychology-in-Action-9th-Edition-by-Huffman

Information Field: Difficulty

Information Field: Objective

Information Field: Page Ref

Information Field: SectionRef

Highest Answer Letter: E

Multiple Keywords in Same Paragraph: No
Chapter: Chapter 01: Introduction and Research Methods

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is a function of modern-day psychologists?

A) Study and treat abnormal behavior

B) Study conformity

C) Study creativity.

D) All of the above
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.1

Page Ref: 2

SectionRef: Introduction to Psychology and Its Research Methods

2. In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.

A) science of conscious and unconscious forces on behavior

B) empirical study of the mind

C) scientific study of the mind

D) scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.1

Page Ref: 4

SectionRef: Introducing Psychology

3. In your textbook, the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information is called _____.

A) empiricism

B) science

C) critical thinking

D) mental processing
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.1

Page Ref: 4

SectionRef: Introducing Psychology

4. Dr. Kristin makes up her responses to radio listeners, using mostly her own commonsense, beliefs, and values rather than scientific research. This practice is more like _____ than _____.

A) fraud; vice

B) pseudopsychology; psychology

C) illegal behavior; legal behavior

D) all of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.1

Page Ref: 4

SectionRef: Introducing Psychology

5. Which of the following is NOT a mental process?

A) thinking

B) feeling

C) reading

D) dreaming
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.1

Page Ref: 5

SectionRef: Introducing Psychology

6. According to your textbook, the goals of psychology are to _____.

A) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind

B) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior

C) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from conception to death

D) describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

7. Which of the following is the BEST example of psychology's goal of describing behavior?

A) giving an interest-inventory (test) at a college counseling center to determine what career or college choices would best suit a student

B) conducting an experiment to determine if watching violent cartoons increases aggressive behavior in preschoolers

C) videotaping an intersection with four-way stop signs and measuring the ratio of complete to incomplete stops made by drivers

D) sending first-time drug offenders to an inpatient treatment program rather than to jail
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

8. Timothy has been reluctant to ask or answer questions in a classroom because when he spoke in his second-grade class his peers laughed at him. This is a demonstration of which goal of psychology?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: B

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

9. You believe that most behaviors are a product of your environment; your best friend argues that behaviors are a result of heredity. This is an example of _____.

A) the nature-nurture controversy

B) applied vs. basic research

C) a doomed friendship

D) an objective vs. subjective argument
Ans: A

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

10. A process in which multiple factors mutually influence one another and the outcome is called _____.

A) empiricism

B) psychology

C) interaction

D) behaviorism
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

11. Hsao-Wei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested) Based on her IQ score, she was placed in a program for gifted children. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: C

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

12. Which of the following is the BEST example of psychology's goal of changing behavior?

A) sending first-time drug offenders to an inpatient treatment program rather than jail

B) exploring the function of cutting behavior in a teenager's life so the teenager can understand her/his options and make choices regarding the behavior.

C) giving an interest-inventory (test) at a college counseling center to determine what career or college choices would best suit a student

D) videotaping an intersection with four-way stop signs and measuring the ratio of complete to incomplete stops made by drivers
Ans: B

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.2

Page Ref: 6

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

13. You decide you want to work in the mental health field. Which of the following careers will allow you to prescribe medication to psychiatric patients?

A) health psychologist

B) psychiatrist

C) clinical psychologist

D) none of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 7

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

14. Dr. DiMassio is studying PET (brain) scans in patients with schizophrenia and comparing them to PET scans in people who have no psychological disorders. It is likely that Dr. DiMassio is a _____.

A) health psychologist

B) developmental psychologist

C) neuropsychologist

D) psychiatrist
Ans: C

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 8

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

15. Samantha specializes in evaluating, diagnosing, and treating mental and behavioral disorders. Samantha is a psychologist.

A) experimental

B) biopsychologist

C) clinical

D) developmental
Ans: C

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 8

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

16. Shirley examines learning processes, motivation, and emotion. It is likely that Shirley I a(n) psychologist.

A) experimental

B) cultural

C) developmental

D) cognitive
Ans: A

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 8

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

17. Lloyd is fascinated by interpersonal behavior, especially prejudice and other attitudes. It is likely that Lloyd is a(n) psychologist.

A) cultural

B) forensic

C) experimental

D) social
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 8

SectionRef: Psychology's Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change

18. The science of psychology began, in the 17th century, to consider topics largely studied previously by ____.

A) medicine

B) philosophy

C) theology

D) biology
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 9

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

19. The father of psychology is ________.

A) Sigmund Freud

B) B. F. Skinner

C) Wilhelm Wundt

D) William James
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 9

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

20. Diane is keeping an in-depth record of her conscious awareness including sensation, images, feelings, and thoughts that she is aware of experiencing. Diane is practicing what Wundt would call _________.

A) Structuralism

B) Empiricism

C) Functionalism

D) Introspection
Ans: D

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 9

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

21. The psychological school of thought called structuralism is associated with _____, and engages in the method of studying experience called _____.

A) Siskel & Ebert; critical review

B) Ben & Jerry; decadent indulgence

C) Tom & Jerry; cutting to the chase

D) Wundt & Titchener; introspection
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

22. Structuralism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ________________.

A) Established a model for the scientific study of mental processes.

B) Showed how separate thoughts combined to form an idea.

C) Explained why individuals experience stimuli differently.

D) Highlighted why different scientific methods are needed to study children and animals versus studying adult humans.
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

23. _____ investigates how mental processes help people adapt to their environment.

A) Structuralism

B) Gestalt

C) Cognitive processing

D) Functionalism
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

24. Functionalism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ____________________.

A) Explained why different individuals experience stimuli differently.

B) Drew the line between branches of psychology so each had its own function.

C) Expanded the scope of psychology to consider such topics as emotion and observable behavior.

D) Specified precisely the scope of psychology as dealing with mental processes.
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

25. The psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective is associated with _____.

A) Freud


B) Skinner

C) Watson

D) all of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10/11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

26. Psychotherapy or 'talk therapy" was developed by whom?

A) B. F. Skinner

B) Carl Rogers

C) William James

D) Sigmund Freud
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

27. The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?

A) psychobiological

B) psychosocial

C) psychoanalytic

D) psychobehavioral
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

28. Many years after his death, the name Sigmund Freud is still recognized as being relevant to psychotherapy. However, much criticism of Freud remains and even some of his closest followers broke with his school of thought. Why?

A) It was believed he put too much emphasis on sex and aggression as motives for behavior.

B) He believed too strongly that the mind influences the body in such diseases as cancer and Alzheimer's Disease.

C) He put too much emphasis on social relationships and social motives in explaining the behavior of his patients.

D) He proposed the concept of defense mechanisms such as projection, which are believed to be unrealistic.
Ans: A

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

29. The clinician who was fascinated by the ability of the mind to influence the body was ________________.

A) Edward Tichner

B) Sigmund Freud

C) William James

D) B. F. Skinner
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

30. The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.

A) Psychodynamic perspective

B) Functionalist perspective.

C) Overt perspective.

D) Behavioral perspective.
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

31. Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious.

A) behaviorism

B) cognitive

C) developmental

D) conditional
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

32. The sound of music makes your feet start tapping. A behaviorist would say that the music is a _____, because it causes you to start foot-tapping.

A) stimulus

B) activating event

C) sound


D) organismic event
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

33. Behaviorists were different conceptually from earlier psychologists for all EXCEPT which reason.

A) They believed mental processes were too obscure to be studied scientifically.

B) They thought the influences of the unconscious mind could not be studied scientifically.

C) They believed classical conditioning only applied to animals such as Pavlov's dogs.

D) They objected to the practice of introspection.
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

34. Behaviorists are MOST successful in treating _______.

A) Neuroses of the mind

B) Overt behavior problems

C) Low self esteem

D) Psychotic disorders
Ans: B

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

35. According to your text, behaviorists have been most successful in treating people with problems such as _____________.

A) Depression

B) Anxiety

C) Alcoholism

D) schizophrenia
Ans: C

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

36. The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking was the __________ perspective.

A) Behavioral

B) Cognitive

C) Humanistic

D) Psychodynamic
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

37. According to the humanistic perspective, human behavior is determined by ________ causes.

A) Voluntary

B) External

C) Objective

D) Psychoanalytic
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

38. A state of self-fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential, according to Abraham Maslow, is called _____.

A) self satisfaction

B) joy

C) self actualization



D) accomplishment
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

39. The scientific study of optimal human function is known as .

A) optimism

B) learned hopefulness

C) positive psychology

D) optimistic psychology
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

40. Structuralists and modern-day cognitive psychologist share interest in

A) introspection

B) sensation

C) overt behavior

D) the elements of thought
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

41. The psychological perspective that studies how we gather, encode, and store information is the ________ perspective.

A) cognitive

B) gestalt

C) concept formation

D) information processing
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

42. Cognitive psychology focuses on ____.

A) Conflict within the conscious mind.

B) The positive, creative, growth-seeking potential of human nature.

C) Mental processes, language, and perception.

D) Complex biochemical events involved in information processing.
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

43. The model that suggests that we process input gathered from the environment in a series of stages is called the ________.

A) stepwise model

B) information processing model

C) cognitive processing model

D) reasoning approach
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

44. Biopsychologists emphasize _____.

A) that behavior is the result of genetics and physiological processes occurring in the brain and nervous system

B) the belief that biology is destiny

C) the evolution of mental behavior

D) that the way to understand human behavior is to first understand animal behavior
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

45. The idea that depression is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.

A) psychiatric

B) evolutionary

C) biopsychosocial

D) eclectic
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

46. Natural selection, adaptation, and the evolution of behavior patterns are major emphases in the _____ perspective of psychology.

A) psychobiological

B) psychosocial

C) ecological

D) evolutionary
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

47. Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?

A) structuralism: observable behavior

B) behaviorism: stimulus-response

C) psychoanalytic: unconscious conflict

D) cognitive: thought
Ans: A

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10, 11, 12

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

48. Malcolm hits Jason because he took his toy. A psychologist from which psychological perspective would explain this behavior by explaining that humans learned to behave aggressively because aggression conveys a survival or reproductive advantage?

A) a behavioral psychologist

B) a cognitive psychologist

C) a biopsychologist

D) an evolutionary psychologist
Ans: D

APA Goal: 4 Application of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

49. Sociocultural psychology is the study of the _____ .

A) influence of culture and social interactions on people's behavior

B) superiority of some cultures over others

C) common behaviors that occur in all cultures

D) none of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

50. A group of children gather around an elder to hear stories in one part of the world whereas children file into a classroom to learn about history from a teacher. Which psychological perspective would MOST emphasize these environmental factors as important in shaping behavior?

A) Behavioral

B) Sociocultural

C) Environmental

D) evolutionary
Ans: B

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

51. The first woman to be recognized in psychology was _____.

A) Laura Schlesinger

B) Ruth Westheimer

C) Karen Horney

D) Mary Calkins
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

52. The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology was _____.

A) Dr. Sumner

B) Dr. Titchener

C) Dr. Wundt

D) Dr. Marley
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

SectionRef: Origins of Psychology

53. Which of the following is NOT one of the major contemporary perspectives in psychology?

A) behavioral

B) evolutionary

C) functionalism

D) cognitive

E) they are all contemporary perspectives in psychology


Ans: E

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 14

SectionRef: Modern Perspectives: Seven Approaches and One Unifying Theme

54. A new, integrative model that proposes that physiological and genetic, cognitive and emotional, and environmental factors all affect and are affected by one another is called the _______.

A) biobehavioral environmental model.

B) Eclectic model

C) Biopsychosocial model

D) Consolidation model
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.5

Page Ref: 14

SectionRef: Modern Perspectives: Seven Approaches and One Unifying Theme

55. The biopsychosocial model is known as a(n) _______.

A) integrative model

B) unifying theme

C) consolidation model

D) eclectic conceptualization
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.5

Page Ref: 15

SectionRef: Modern Perspectives: Seven Approaches and One Unifying Theme

56. The term basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.

A) is basic to one field only

B) advances scientific knowledge

C) is done to get a grade or a tenured teaching position

D) solves basic problems encountered by humans and animals in a complex world
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

57. A scientist who seeks knowledge for his/her own sake is conducting ________.

A) basic research

B) applied research

C) elemental research

D) fundamental research
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

58. If you prepared a study to determine which areas of the brain are used for working memory, you would be conducting _____ research.

A) dependent

B) independent

C) application

D) basic
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

59. The term, applied research, is BEST defined as research that _____.

A) is designed to solve practical problems

B) is conducted in an applied setting rather than in the laboratory

C) studies psychological principles

D) all of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

60. If you prepared a study to determine ways to enhance athletic performance, you would be conducting _____ research.

A) independent

B) basic

C) dependent

D) applied
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

61. Replication increases scientific confidence in a theory if the _____.

A) citations are accurate

B) findings are similar

C) statistics are accurate

D) statistics are significant
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

62. Carlos and Bonita were intrigued by the results of a study about the biases people display toward work done by males compared to work done by females. They decided to perform the same study, following the same procedures, to see if they would get the same results. This is an example of _____.

A) an invalid research method

B) a replication of studies

C) plagiarism

D) a waste of research time and funding
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

63. This is a statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies.

A) operational research

B) recombinant analysis

C) meta-analysis

D) data synthesis
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

64. Tara is in 11th grade and is interested in studying the effects of text-messaging rather than talking on the phone on the quality of friendships. The first step Tara would perform in order to follow the scientific method is ______.

A) forming a testable hypothesis

B) developing a theory

C) reviewing the literature of existing theories

D) designing a study
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

65. The first step in the scientific method is ________ .

A) developing a theory

B) forming a testable hypothesis

C) designing a study

D) reviewing the literature of existing theories
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

66. Your text defines a hypothesis as a _____.

A) specific prediction about how one variable is related to another

B) precise definition of how variables will be observed and measured in a study

C) concept that explains previously gathered data

D) all of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

67. When a scientist chooses between using natural observation, case studies, surveys, or experimental method; (s)he is choosing the best ______ for her study.

A) hypothesis

B) theory

C) algorithm

D) research design
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

68. Mathematical methods used to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data are called ______.

A) empirical evidence

B) operational definitions

C) statistics

D) data
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

69. According to your text, when a scientist submits a study for publication to a journal where other scientists will read it and decide whether or not it will be published, the article is undergoing _______.

A) external observation

B) peer review

C) statistical analysis

D) critical examination
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

70. How often, in scientific studies, does the scientist first develop a theory and then conduct the research?

A) always

B) 50% of the time

C) Never


D) sometimes
Ans: C

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

71. A precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured is called a(n) .

A) algorithm

B) operational definition

C) hypothesis

D) theory
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

72. Your text defines a theory as _________ .

A) an explanation for a behavior being studied that can be answered or affirmed by an experiment or series of observations

B) an interrelated set of concepts that explains a body of research

C) the expression of a prediction or a statement of cause and effect

D) all of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

73. Numerous studies have been conducted on student test-taking behavior. The data from these studies have been compiled, and researchers have developed a set of concepts to explain this interrelated data and generate testable questions to verify these concepts. This set of concepts is called a(n) _____.

A) hypothesis

B) experimental study

C) abstract

D) theory
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

74. A participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect is known as _____.

A) participant observer

B) placebo effect

C) informed consent

D) debriefing
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 18-19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

75. You are unsure whether you want to complete an experiment you began an hour ago. According to the rules of informed consent, when you ask the researcher if you have to continue, the researcher should respond with _____.

A) "You have the right to drop out of the study at any time."

B) "I'm sorry, the experiment must continue."

C) "Please continue. I will debrief you afterwards."

D) "You may drop the study now, but you will forfeit credit."
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

76. Deception is sometimes used in psychological research in order to _____.

A) create a realistic situation with genuine reactions

B) protect the public from unpleasant research realities

C) protect participants from being harmed

D) prevent sample bias, ethnocentric bias, and experimenter bias
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

77. According to the rules of informed consent, a researcher must disclose all EXCEPT which of the following before the study begins?

A) potential physical risks and discomforts

B) potential unpleasant emotional experiences

C) the reasons for involuntary participation and deception

D) the hypothesis of the study
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

78. Which of the following is NOT an ethical concern of psychologists?

A) the safety and health of research animals

B) protecting client confidentiality

C) deception in research

D) subject bias
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

79. According to your text, debriefing is _____.

A) interviewing subjects after a study to find out what they were thinking during their participation

B) explaining the purpose of the study, anticipated results, and deceptions used when the study is over

C) disclosing potential physical and emotional risks, and the nature of the study prior to its beginning

D) interviewing subjects after a study to determine whether any deceptions were effective in preventing them from learning the true purpose of the study
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

80. If a psychology teacher lets students earn extra credit by volunteering for research, he/she is ethically required to _____.

A) volunteer for a study himself/herself

B) provide an alternative extra credit activity of equal value

C) help conduct the study himself

D) all of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

81. Which of the following is NOT one of the guidelines covered by the APA in their Ethical Principles?

A) informed consent

B) restricted use of deception

C) confidentiality

D) involuntary participation
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 18-19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

82. Which of the following is NOT true about animal research?

A) It accounts for only 7-8% of psychological research.

B) 90% of animal research uses rats or mice.

C) Animal researchers use punishments as often as they use rewards.

D) Research benefits both human and nonhuman animals
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 19

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

83. A therapist may be required to break client confidentiality if the client _____.

A) threatens to hurt himself

B) threatens to hurt others

C) is abusing a child or an elder adult

D) all of these options
Ans: D

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 20

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

84. Which of the following therapists is NOT violating psychology's ethical standard of confidentiality?

A) Dr. Novak called the Department of Social Services to report her client, who admitted during their session together that she was abusing her nine-year-old daughter.

B) Dr. Jones describes detailed case histories of former clients to his psychology class without disguising their characteristics.

C) Dr. Smith-Nguyen discusses a client with his wife to get her advice.

D) Dr. Polanski told two of his colleagues that he was treating a local television news anchor for major depression, but didn't name her.
Ans: A

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 20

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

85. Molly is a clinical psychologist doing therapy with a man who has reported his wife has been unfaithful. He tells Molly he is going to go home and kill his wife. What does Molly do in this case?

A) She can try to talk him out of it but cannot call the police no matter what the outcome due to confidentiality concern.

B) Have him committed to a mental institution

C) Call the police and inform his wife if she cannot talk him out of it

D) Nothing; due to confidentiality concerns she is powerless.
Ans: C

APA Goal: 3 Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 20

SectionRef: The Science of Psychology

86. The BEST definition of an experiment is _____.

A) a standardized scientific procedure for conducting investigations

B) the identical treatment of participants in two groups to determine the effect of a dependent variable on an independent variable

C) a systematic recording of behavior exhibited by participants in the laboratory

D) a carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a causal effect on other variables
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.8

Page Ref: 21

SectionRef: Research Methods

87. Researchers can isolate a single factor and examine the effect of that factor alone on a particular behavior through use of a(n) ________.

A) experiment

B) correlational study

C) biological study

D) descriptive study
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.8

Page Ref: 21

SectionRef: Research Methods

88. Experimenter bias refers to _____.

A) intentional subtle cues given by a researcher that lead a subject to guess what the correct response should be

B) the tendency of experimenters to influence the results of a study in the expected direction

C) the experimenter's belief that his or her study results are more accurate than any other study's results

D) the tendency of experimenters to unintentionally report their results in a manner which always supports their hypotheses
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.10

Page Ref: 22

SectionRef: Research Methods

89. While conducting research, you unintentionally provide subtle cues to the study's participants about the purpose of the research, which influences your results in the direction you expected. This is a demonstration of _____.

A) ethnocentric research

B) misapplication of an independent variable

C) experimenter bias

D) none of these options
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.10

Page Ref: 22

SectionRef: Research Methods

90. The BEST definition of an independent variable is a _____.

A) measurable behavior that is exhibited by a participant and is affected by the dependent variable

B) variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable

C) variable that is kept constant during an experiment to prevent contamination of other variables

D) variable that cannot be manipulated by anyone
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 23

SectionRef: Research Methods

91. In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.

A) independent

B) intervening

C) controlled

D) dependent
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 23

SectionRef: Research Methods

92. _____ are manipulated; _____ are measured.

A) dependent variables; independent variables

B) surveys; experiments

C) statistics; correlations

D) IVs; DVs
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 23

SectionRef: Research Methods

93. Professor Matsos wants to determine if rewards will increase recycling efforts on campus. The dependent variable in this example is _____.

A) rewards vs. no rewards

B) the amount of recycling done by students and faculty on campus

C) the students who recycle

D) Professor Matsos
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 23

SectionRef: Research Methods

94. Students were divided into two groups. Students in one group were ignored when they talked without raising their hands. Students in the other group were attended to in the teacher's usual manner. The independent variable in this experiment was _____.

A) initial levels of talking

B) decreased talking

C) attention from the teacher

D) division of students into two groups
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 23

SectionRef: Research Methods

95. The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.

A) do not receive the independent variable

B) receive the dependent variable

C) do not receive the DV

D) receive the IV or treatment
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

96. In a drug-study to test the effectiveness of a new drug for treating the common cold, you are randomly assigned to a group that gets the drug. This means that you _____.

A) will probably get a cold

B) are in the experimental group

C) are in the placebo group

D) are being used unethically as a "guinea pig"
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

97. The control group in an experiment is the group in which participants _____.

A) receive no treatment

B) receive the dependent variable

C) do not receive the DV

D) receive the IV
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

98. If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new "memory" drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the _____ would be the independent variable (IV), and the _____ would be the dependent variable (DV).

A) response to the drug; amount of the drug

B) experimental group; control group

C) exposure to the drug; quiz scores

D) researcher variables; extraneous variables
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

99. If this causes that, then this is the _____ variable, and that is the _____ variable.

A) dependent; independent

B) independent; dependent

C) constant; dependent

D) constant; independent
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

100. The BEST definition of a dependent variable is _____.

A) a measurable behavior that is affected by the independent variable

B) a variable that is controlled by the experimenter and is applied to the participant to determine its effect

C) a variable that is kept constant during an experiment to prevent contamination of other variables

D) a variable that cannot do anything by itself
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

101. In a study to test the effects of alcohol on driving, you were in a group of participants that drove poorly. This means that ____.

A) you were in the experimental group

B) you were in the control group

C) there is insufficient information to determine your group

D) your license will be revoked a the end of the study
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.9

Page Ref: 24

SectionRef: Research Methods

102. The BEST definition of a double blind study is research in which _____.

A) nobody knows what they are doing

B) neither the participants in the treatment group nor the control group knows which treatment is being given to which group

C) both the researcher and the participants are unaware of who is in the experimental and control groups

D) two control groups (or placebo conditions) must be used
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

103. Your research class conducted an experiment on caffeine-induced stress in which neither the class researchers nor the participants in the experiment knew who did and did not receive caffeine until after the study was completed. This research technique is called a(n) _____.

A) counterbalanced design

B) double-blind study

C) unknown condition experiment

D) controlled deception condition
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 27

SectionRef: Research Methods

104. A new anti-depressant is being tested in a study in which neither the patient nor the physician knows whether a patient is getting the drug or the placebo. However, due to the reported side effects, a questionnaire given after the data are collected reveals the 85% of participants and patients were correct in identifying whether they were in the experimental or control condition. Contrary to design expectations, the experiment was not ________.

A) Effective

B) Reliable

C) Correlational

D) Double blind
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

105. A placebo is defined in your text as _____.

A) a sugar pill that is used to fool subjects into thinking it is a drug

B) an inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique

C) the location where an experiment is conducted

D) none of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

106. Ethnocentrism in research refers to _____.

A) the belief that a typical behavior in one's culture is typical of all cultures

B) a researcher's inflated sense of his or her own research abilities

C) a central need to include people from all races and cultures in an experiment

D) an attitude among researchers that their field of study is more important than any other field
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

107. One of the BEST ways to deal with ethnocentrism in scientific research is to _____.

A) create culturally diverse research review committees

B) provide cultural sensitivity training to all researchers

C) use cross-cultural sampling

D) ignore it because cultural universals are more prevalent than cultural specifics
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

108. According to your text, sample bias occurs when _____.

A) the sample of participants in a research study are not representative of the larger population

B) participants exhibit behaviors that are considered typical in their own culture

C) an experimenter biases a sample by providing unintentional cues about correct responses

D) all of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

109. The inability to generalize research results to other people or situations is directly affected by _____.

A) experimenter bias

B) sample bias

C) the placebo effect

D) the lack of adequate controls
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

110. A sample is BEST defined as _____.

A) a group of participants in a study who have sampled the treatment condition

B) a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population

C) the total of all possible cases from which a population is selected

D) a group of participants in a study that is atypical of the larger population
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

111. One way to ensure less sample bias is to select a(n) _____ sample.

A) representative/random

B) homogenous/ethnocentric

C) placebo/control

D) heterogeneous/ethnocentric
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

112. Ashlee is a researcher interested in whether boys or girls grow more as a result of eating high-protein breakfast cereal. She has a control group that eats regular cereal. Although Ashlee manipulates variables in her study, it is not a true experiment because it lacks ________.

A) a dependent variable

B) a research question

C) random assignment to groups

D) Naturalistic observation
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

113. In a study on student conformity, researchers selected a group of college students who appeared to represent the characteristics of students from the entire college campus. The selected group served as the _____ of the college _____.

A) representatives; campus

B) population; representatives

C) sample; population

D) representatives; sample
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 25

SectionRef: Research Methods

114. In a procedure called _____, participants are placed in experimental conditions on the basis of chance, thus minimizing biases or preexisting differences in the groups.

A) random sampling

B) random assignment

C) group selection

D) experimental assignment
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 26

SectionRef: Research Methods

115. As you walk into your Introductory Psychology class, your teacher flips a coin to determine whether you should be in Group A or Group B for her in-class experiment. This procedure is called _____.

A) experimental assignment

B) independent selection

C) representative grouping

D) random assignment
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 26

SectionRef: Research Methods

116. Research participants who try to present themselves in a good light are demonstrating _____.

A) good judgment

B) the social desirability response

C) a placebo effect

D) all of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 26

SectionRef: Research Methods

117. One way to decrease participant bias is to _____.

A) conduct single-blind studies

B) offer anonymous participation

C) use placebo controls

D) all of these options
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.11

Page Ref: 26

SectionRef: Research Methods

118. Dutton and Aron, in their famous study involving crossing either a high (230 foot) bridge or a low (10 foot) bridge had a female researcher approach men with a questionnaire in the middle of the bridge. They found that men crossing the high bridge were more sexually attracted to the female researcher than men crossing the low bridge. The results of this study are believed to highlight the phenomenon known as ________.

A) Fatuous love

B) Misattribution of arousal

C) The adventurer hypothesis

D) Reaction formation
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.12

Page Ref: 27

SectionRef: Research Methods

119. _____ research observes and records behaviors without manipulating variables or producing causal explanations.

A) Descriptive

B) Empirical

C) Independent

D) Dependent
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 28

SectionRef: Research Methods

120. In a naturalistic observation, a researcher would be most likely to do which of the following?

A) conduct an in-depth study of a single subject

B) observe participants as they behave naturally in the laboratory

C) observe and systematically record behavior in a participant's natural state or habitat

D) none of these options
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 29

SectionRef: Research Methods

121. A research student is assigned the task of watching and recording the interactions between members of a Koala family on an Australian plantation. This research is known as _____.

A) an animal husbandry survey

B) a quasi-experiment

C) introspection

D) naturalistic observation
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 29

SectionRef: Research Methods

122. Jack is studying psychology and wants to see how people behave when his friend enters an elevator and keeps her back to the door versus eye contact when she stands near a doorway between classes. His research method is ____________ .

A) Naturalistic observation

B) Survey

C) Case study

D) Experimental
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 29

SectionRef: Research Methods

123. Stephanie wants to observe how her 2-year old, Olivia, is behaving at daycare, so she sits in the back of the room to observe. Which research strategy was Stephanie trying to use?

A) Correlational study

B) Experiment

C) Naturalistic observation

D) Survey
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 29

SectionRef: Research Methods

124. The main advantage of naturalistic observation is that it _____.

A) eliminates extraneous variables

B) allows researchers to obtain data about natural behavior

C) is less time-consuming and expensive than other research methods

D) all of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 29

SectionRef: Research Methods

125. A survey is a(n) _____.

A) experimental technique for sampling a population's attitudes

B) research technique for assessing behaviors and attitudes of a sample or population

C) noncorrelational research technique for sampling a wide variety of populations

D) unreliable and invalid research technique, usually used by magazines and political or commercial pollsters
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

126. Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services. Which scientific method of research would you recommend she use to determine the focus of her campaign?

A) a case study

B) naturalistic observation

C) an experiment

D) a survey
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

127. Surveys can be used to _____ behavior.

A) describe

B) predict

C) explain and change

D) describe or predict
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

128. What was one advantage of survey research that was mentioned in your text?

A) Surveys can identify causes of behavior

B) Surveys can provide more in-depth information than other research methods.

C) Surveys can identify subject bias.

D) Surveys can be used on larger samples than other research methods.
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

129. If you wanted to study someone with a rare disorder such as photophobia (the fear of light), your BEST research option would be a/an _____.

A) experimental study

B) correlational study

C) case study

D) survey
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

130. In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.

A) interview many research subjects who have a single problem or disorder

B) conduct an in-depth study of a single research participant

C) choose and investigate a single topic

D) use any of these options, which describe different types of case studies
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 30

SectionRef: Research Methods

131. In _____research, a researcher observes or measures (without manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them, without inferring a causal relationship.

A) experimental

B) correlational

C) basic


D) applied
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 31

SectionRef: Research Methods

132. Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from _____ studies.

A) experimental

B) descriptive

C) correlational

D) all of these options
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.13

Page Ref: 33

SectionRef: Research Methods

133. A number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between variables is called a/an _____.

A) inference

B) inferential statistic

C) correlation coefficient

D) quasi-correlation
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 32

SectionRef: Research Methods

134. Which is the stronger correlation, -1.00 or +1.00?

A) +1.00


B) They are the same.

C) -1.00


D) Neither; -1.00 does not exist.
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 32

SectionRef: Research Methods

135. Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relation?

A) +.78


B) -.84

C) +.35


D) 00
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 32

SectionRef: Research Methods

136. Salary and years of education are _____ correlated, and grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are _____ correlated.

A) not; positively

B) negatively; positively

C) positively; not

D) positively, negatively
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 32

SectionRef: Research Methods

137. Which of the following is an example of a zero correlation?

A) the relationship between your personality and the position of various stars and planets on the day of your birth

B) the relationship between your height and your intelligence

C) the relationship between what you had for breakfast and what the student closest to you is wearing

D) all of these options
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 32

SectionRef: Research Methods

138. _____ research is used to study the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

A) Traditional

B) Psychological

C) Biological

D) Clinical
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 33

SectionRef: Research Methods

139. If you use a small wire to record the brain's electrical activity, the output produces an _____.

A) EGG


B) EEG

C) EKG


D) none of these options
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 33

SectionRef: Research Methods

140. Both early and modern-day brain researchers have used _____ to study the brain.

A) dissection of the brains of deceased humans

B) lesion experiments on animals

C) clinical observations or case studies of living people

D) all of these options
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 34

SectionRef: Research Methods

141. You destroyed the amygdala in a research rat in order to observe changes in its behavior. This is an example of _____.

A) lesioning research

B) unethical research

C) ablation research

D) animal husbandry
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 34

SectionRef: Research Methods

142. Dr. Penfield is inserting electrodes into specific areas of your brain to prepare for performing brain surgery. It is MOST likely that you are undergoing _____.

A) ESB


B) EEG

C) EGG


D) EFG
Ans: A

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 36

SectionRef: Research Methods

143. This is an X ray procedure that reveals cross-sectional views of internal structural damage or problems in the brain.

A) positron emission tomography (PET)

B) computerized tomography scan (CT)

C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

D) none of these options; X rays cannot be used safely on brain tissue
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 35

SectionRef: Research Methods

144. Gideon has been injected with radioactive glucose and his doctor is observing the activity levels in various parts of his brain. Gideon is having a(n) _____.

A) near death experience

B) PET scan

C) MI scan

D) CT scan
Ans: B

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 35

SectionRef: Research Methods

145. A method of brain stimulation that delivers a large current through a wire coil placed on the skull is called ______.

A) computed tomography

B) impedance crainiotomy

C) transcranial magnetic stimulation

D) functional magnetic resonance imaging
Ans: C

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 35

SectionRef: Research Methods

146. _______ scans measure brain activity by monitoring blood flow to specific areas of the brain.

A) EMG


B) EEG

C) CT


D) fMRI
Ans: D

APA Goal: 2 Research Methods in Psychology

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 36

SectionRef: Research Methods

147. Universalists believe ____________ provide the clearest example of a possible cultural universal.

A) Language acquisition

B) Hemisphere specialization

C) Facial emotional expression

D) Lateralization of functioning
Ans: C

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.16

Page Ref: 38

SectionRef: Research Methods

148. How, when, and where facial expressions are expressed are called _____.

A) display rules

B) expression rules

C) social norms

D) expressive permissiveness
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.16

Page Ref: 38

SectionRef: Research Methods

149. SQ4R stands for ____________________ .

A) Survey, question, read, recite, review, write

B) Scan, query, read, repeat, reword, recite

C) Survey, query, review, read, reread, recite

D) Scan, question, read, write by rewording, repeat
Ans: B

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.17

Page Ref: 41

SectionRef: Tools for Student Success

150. Which of the following is NOT an identified step in time management that was identified in your text?

A) establish a baseline

B) set up a realistic schedule

C) reward yourself for good behavior

D) maximize your time

E) all are identified steps


Ans: E

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.17

Page Ref: 43, 44

SectionRef: Tools for Student Success

151. What is the single most important key to improving grades that was identified in your text?

A) distributed study time

B) note taking

C) complete learning

D) understanding the professor
Ans: A

APA Goal: 1 Knowledge Base of Psychology

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 1.17

Page Ref: 44

SectionRef: Tools for Student Success

Essay

152. List and describe the four goals of psychology giving an original example of how either basic or applied research could be used to achieve each goal.



Ans:
Objective: 1.2, 1.6

Page Ref: 16-17; 6-7

153. Maria is considering a career in psychology. Using information from this chapter, describe to Maria what her options might be in the field of psychology providing a career example for each option.

Ans:
Objective: 1.3

Page Ref: 7-9

154. Contrast the following three schools/perspectives in psychology with regard to their research methods, beliefs about the effects of the past on behavior, and areas of emphasis: psychoanalytic, behaviorism, and cognitive psychology and their contributions to the biopsychosocial model. Explain which perspective you find most intriguing.

Ans:
Objective: 1.4

Page Ref: 10 -15

155. Suppose you believe that stress causes headaches. Describe what you would need to do for each of the six basic steps in the scientific method to research your belief.

Ans:
Objective: 1.6

Page Ref: 16 - 18

156. Imagine that you are a psychologist. Describe ethical considerations for human participants in research studies, and the benefits, limitations, and ethical considerations for animal research. Then, describe what you would tell a therapy client about what she can expect with regard to your maintaining her confidentiality. Finally, state the possible consequences of violating ethical standards in psychology.

Ans:
Objective: 1.7

Page Ref: 18 - 20

157. Suppose you wanted to determine whether the use of marijuana is related to car accidents. Discuss the major limitations and merits of using each of the following research methods: an experiment, a naturalistic observation, a survey, and a case study; then state which method you would ultimately use.

Ans:
Objective: 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11

Page Ref: 18-30

158. Suppose you believe negative advertising causes people to vote against the political candidate attacked in the ad) Describe an experiment you could perform to test your theory. Be sure to include a hypothesis, operational definitions of your independent and dependent variables, who your participants would be, and how you would randomly assign them to experimental or control groups.

Ans:
Objective: 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11

Page Ref: 21-27

159. Discuss correlational research and why it is often a precursor to experimental studies. Why is correlation so important?

Ans:
Objective: 1.14

Page Ref: 31-32

160. Contrast the three types of brain scans: CT, PET, and MRI (or fMRI), providing an example of when each scan might be used)

Ans:
Objective: 1.15

Page Ref: 33-36

161. Discuss cultural psychology, including why it is important today. State your text's example of a culturally universal behavior and one way it may manifest itself in a culturally specific way.

Ans:
Objective: 1.16



Page Ref: 38-39




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