Referencing Style Guide

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Author: The author’s last name is listed first, followed by up to 2 initials, with no periods. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation and convert Roman numerals to Arabic ordinals; e.g., DeVita VT Jr, Jones JG 2nd. Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number. If no person or organization with responsibility for a publication can be determined, omit this element; do not use “anonymous.”

Article title: Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present.
Serial title: Newspaper titles are not abbreviated although the leading “The” may be dropped; e.g. “Wall Street Journal.” If the location of the newspaper is not apparent from the title, it is added parenthetically to the name, as “Bergen (NJ) County Record.” The specific edition of a newspaper is a required component of a citation since the same article may or may not appear in different editions, and the text of an article often varies among editions.

Date of publication: The year is entered first, followed by the month/season/day.

Volume number: Tradition omits volume and issue numbers from references to newspapers. The date combined with the section name, number or letter substitutes for volume . Abbreviate Section to Sect. Follow Sect. with the letter, number or name of the section. Convert Roman numerals used for section numbers into Arabic numerals, e.g., II becomes 2. Sections many be named, as “Metro Section, “Weekend Section,” etc. Use these names in a reference only when the section lacks a number or letter.

Pagination: Only the beginning page of an article is included.

Standard newspaper article format:

Author(s) of article. Title of article. Newspaper name. Date of publication Year Month Day: section:location (column number).

Note: If the location of the newspaper is not apparent from the title, it is added parenthetically to the name, as “Bergen (NJ) County Record.”

Examples of newspaper articles:

Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate.

Washington Post (Maryland Ed.). 2002 Aug 12:Sect A:2 (col. 4).

Kunkle F. Grievance panel seeks reprimand for Gansler. Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Jul 3;Montgomery Extra:10 (col. 1).

Graedon J, Graedon T. Amnesia and cholesterol-lowering prescription drugs. The (Baltimore) Sun (Weekend Ed.). 2005 Jul 24;Home & Family:8N (col. 1).

Legal Materials

The legal profession has for many years employed a unique system of citation unlike that

customarily used in standard bibliographic references. Because this legal standard is so well

established, it is used for this type of material instead of the traditional format. See the boxed standard formats below for bibliographic adaptations of these legal citations. For online legal materials, follow the appropriate format and use the accession location (url) and date you accessed the material online.

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