Referencing Style Guide

(Article with extent expressed as an article number/e-locator)

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(Article with extent expressed as an article number/e-locator)

Cunningham PJ, May JH. Medicaid patients increasingly concentrated among physicians. Tracking Reports [serial on the Internet]. 2006 Aug [cited 2007 Mar 20]:Report 16 [5 p.]. Available from:

Aoki TT, Grecu EO, Arcangeli MA, Meisenheimer R. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on abnormal circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Online J Curr Clin Trials [serials on the Internet]. 1995 Dec 15 [cited 2007 Jan 4]:Doc No 199 [about 10 screens]. Available from: Subscription required.
Ahmad F, Hogg-Johnson S, Skinner HA. Assessing patient attitudes to computerized screening in primary care: psychometric properties of the computerized lifestyle assessment scale. J Med Internet Res [serial on the Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Nov 17];10(2):e11 [about 14 p.]. Available from:

(.PDF from publisher’s Web site with article number not “prefaced”)

Williams FM, Cherkas LF, Spector TD, MacGregor AJ. A common genetic factor underlies hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. BMC Cardiovasc Disord [serial on the Internet]. 2004[cited 2005 May 3]; 4: 20. Available from
(Journal article on the Internet with extent expressed as estimated number of pages)

Withers R, Casson R, Shrimplin A. Narrowcasting to faculty and students: creating an efficient "research by subject" page. Electron J Acad Spec Librariansh [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Winter [cited 2005 Dec 28];6(3):[about 11 p.]. Available from: .

Newspaper article with length expressed in paragraphs

Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [newspaper of the Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from:

Newspaper article with length expressed in screens

Grady D. Jump in doctor visits and deaths in flu season. New York Times [newspaper on the Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Research:[about 4 screens]. Available from:

Homepage/ Web site

A homepage is the first or introductory page of a Web site and may provide a table of contents or index to the contents of the site. Homepages are placed on the Internet by both organizations and individuals, and they vary greatly in size and complexity. A citation to a Web site is made primarily from the information found on a homepage. If you wish to cite only a portion of a Web site, cite the portion according to the instructions for the particular format; e.g., cite a monograph in a Web site according to the section (above) on Monographs; cite a serials according to the section (above) on serials; cite a database according to the section (above) on Databases/Retrieval Systems.

Title. The title of a Web site may be difficult to discern from a collage of graphics. If you have difficulty determining the title, look at the “tab” at the top of the screen for a hint. Reproduce the title of a homepage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, punctuation, and special characters when possible. Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present.

For other elements (author, publisher, place of publication, date of publication), follow general guidelines as for other types of resources. Other elements, however, may be more difficult to locate when citing homepages. For example, some poorly constructed sites do not contain dates, and authorship or publishing responsibility may be unclear or absent. For example, the date of publication is required in a citation, but most homepages are updated or otherwise modified numerous times after the date of publication, i.e., the date the homepage was first placed on the Internet. The latest date of update/revision, if given, should therefore be included along with the date cited, i.e., the date the person doing the citing saw the homepage on the Internet. This is necessary in the volatile Internet environment, where changes can be easily made and a site seen one day may not be the same when viewed the next day. It is strongly recommended that you keep a print or other copy of crucial pages for future reference.

Locating the date of publication

Some homepages clearly state the date that the site was placed on the Internet, using such phrases as "first published", "created", and "began". When they do not:

  • Look for the date at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen or the bottom of the homepage.

  • Look for the date accompanying a copyright statement. For example: copyright 2006 by the American Chemical Society, © 2006 American Medical Association, c2006 Medical College of Wisconsin, c2000-2007 National Rural Health Association.

  • Look for a date in the text of a link labeled "About this site", "History", or similar wording.

  • If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited. Examples:

    • The Kennedy Institute of Ethics [Internet]. Washington: The Institute; [updated 2007 Mar 16; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from:

    • National Center for Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [reviewed 2007 Feb 15; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

    • Double D. Critical Psychiatry Website [Internet]. Norwich (UK): Duncan Double; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:

Standard format: Author. Title [Content Designator Medium Designator]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of Update/Revision; Date of citation]. Availability. Notes: .


Homepage/Web site Knowledge for Action [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

Hypertension, Dialysis & Clinical Nephrology [Internet]. Hinsdale (IL): Medtext, Inc.; c1995-2001 [cited

2001 Mar 8]. Available from:

Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute [Internet]. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University; © 2009 [cited 2009 Sep 23]. Available from

Part of a homepage/ Web site

Zand J. The natural pharmacy: herbal medicine for depression [Internet]. [place unkown]:HealthWorld Online, Inc. c1999 [updated 2000 Dec 6; cited 2001 Aug 23]. Available from:
Chlamy Center: an Online Informatics Resource for Chlamydomonas [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; [modified 2007 Mar 8]. Core collections; [modified 2006 Jan 25; cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:
fruits & veggies - more matter: Ways to Get More [Internet]. [place unknown]: Produce for Better Health Foundation; c2007 [cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:
Appendix A:

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