Referencing Style Guide

Electronic Sources (Digital Information Format)

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Electronic Sources (Digital Information Format)
Title: Names of programs that have been trademarked or copyrighted are reproduced as they appear on the opening screen or title page of the documentation of the program, as “Pro-Cite, Micromedex®, or A.D.A.M;” otherwise, capitalize only the first word and proper nouns.
Type of medium: The type of medium (e.g., computer program, serial on CD-ROM, etc.) is placed in brackets after the title
Author: The individual(s) responsible for writing/designing/compiling the work are listed, surname first, followed by up to two initials. Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number. Organizations may also serve as authors. If a division or other part of the organization appears, it is listed with the organization in hierarchical order from highest to lowest, as “National Library of Medicine (US), Public Services Division.” If an organization serves as both author and publisher, the name generally is omitted here as author. If no person or organization with responsibility for a publication can be determined, omit this element; do not use “anonymous.”
Edition: A statement relating to an edition that contains differences from other editions; such words as “edition,” “issue,” “version,” “release,” “level,” “update” are used, as “Version 5.1” or “Level 3.4.” More traditional words such as “Revised Edition” or “Third Update” may also appear and may be abbreviated, as “Rev. Ed.” And “3rd Update.”
Place of publication: The city where published; followed by the state or country if needed for clarification, as “Rome, NY.” Names of States/countries may be abbreviated according to accepted standards. If more than one location appears, the more prominent or the first appearing is used. If no place is found in the book but can be reasonable inferred (e.g., Cambridge, MA as the place of publication of an item produced by Harvard University), place the name in brackets. If no place can be determined, the words “place unknown” are given in brackets.
Publisher: The firm or organization responsible for issuing the work. If a division of other part of the organization appears, it is listed with the organization in hierarchical order from highest to lowest, as “International Business Machines Corporation, personal Computer Division.” Common words as “Corporation” may be abbreviated. If no publisher can be identified, the words “publisher unknown” are placed in brackets.
Date of publication: The year of publication, followed by the month, if given, as “1998 Jan.” Names of months may be abbreviated to the first 3 letters. If no date is found on the work or in an accompanying manual but it can be determined from some other source, brackets are placed around it, ‘as [1998 Jan].” If no date can be determined, the words “date unknown” are placed in brackets. If the work is an open database, i.e., records are still being added, the beginning date is given followed by a dash, as “1966-.” If it is a closed database, i.e., records are no longer being added, the beginning and ending dates are given, as “1976 – 1985.”
Date of revision: Electronic sources are frequently updated or revised between editions or versions. This date should be given following the date of the original, surrounded by brackets, as “[updated 1999 Jan]” or “[rev. 1999 Mar 1].” This date is particularly important for online databases; even if a database is closed in terms of the addition of new records, it may still be updated for error correction or other file maintenance.
Frequency: If the source is a database is still being updated, the frequency with which it is updated is given here, as “Updated monthly.”
Availability: If the work is not commercially available or may be acquired from others than the publisher, information on the location of the source may be provided, as “Available from: DIAGOG Information Services, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.”
Notes: Information concerning system requirements may be given; there is no specific wording prescribed. “System Requirements” may precede information supplied with the database documentation such as the name of the operating system and its version, the kind and characteristics of any required peripherals, etc.

Standard format:

Author. Title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher: Date of publication. Frequency. Availability. Notes.




Anderson, SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.

1990 national health interview survey [database on CD- ROM]. National Center for Health

Statistics. CD-ROM Series 10, No. 4. SETS version 1.21. Updated annually. Washington, DC.

U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Pharmaceuticals package library [database on disk]. Philadelphia: Bio-Rad Laboratories,

Sadtler Division; 1989- . Updated periodically. 3 ½ in. computer disks. System

Requirements: IBM PC, PS/2, or compatible; floppy drive; 1MG memory. Microsoft Windows

Contribution to a database

Contributions are separately identified sections or portions of databases that are provided by individuals or organizations other than the database builders and thus have distinct authorship.

Kuayam-Bashi F, McGrath SM. HIV target cell interaction. In: Compact library: AIDS [database on CD-ROM]. Version 1.55a. Boston: Massachusetts Medical Society, 1980-90 [updated 1990 Oct]. [328 lines]

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