Publishing of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks



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THE
PUBLISHING OF ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY
MONOGRAPHS AND TEXTBOOKS


C J Armstrong

Centre for Information Quality Management

Information Automation Limited, Penbryn, Bronant, Aberystwyth

SY23 4TJ


lisqual@cix.compulink.co.uk

Ray Lonsdale

Department of Information and Library Studies, University of Wales Aberystwyth

Aberystwyth

SY23 3AS


rel@aber.ac.uk

April 1998

ABSTRACT

This eLib Supporting Study was conceived to investigate the incidence and nature of the publishing of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks in the United Kingdom. Given the international nature of academic publishing, and the fact that the professional literature suggested a higher incidence of activity within North America, the study was extended to encompass publishing beyond the UK. This afforded a comparative context by which to view UK initiatives.


The project focused on publications used in tertiary education or for research, and

‘electronic publishing’ was taken to mean texts made available in any computer-mediated format: diskette, CD-ROM or via the Internet.


A range of methodological approaches was employed in conducting the research. These included a comprehensive literature search and review; a survey of publishers of electronic monographs by means of an interrogation of their Web sites, and case studies were also conducted with selected UK publishers. A separate investigation of the publishers of national bibliographical sources and services was also undertaken using telephone interviews, and UK university libraries were surveyed by means of an email questionnaire.
The project explored several interrelated areas. The nature of the general publishing context of scholarly monographs and textbooks was investigated to ascertain the current status of academic book publishing. The study offers a description of the structure of electronic monograph publishing, addressing such issues as incidence of provision, management structures, costing mechanisms, authoring and editorial responsibilities. An analysis of the issues associated with the characteristics of CD-ROM and Web monographs is provided, together with a delineation of the nature of narrative content, added value components, subject orientations, rights issues and quality control. File formats, document authority and identification, publication security and metadata are considered for both CD-ROM and Web monographs.
The project explored the implications of electronic monograph publishing for those involved in collection management, and provides an analysis of the current nature of bibliographic access and delivery. A cursory investigation into the provision of monographs in university libraries complemented that analysis, and was conceived as the precursor for a further in-depth study.
The findings of this report are extensive and complex. They suggest that UK electronic monograph publishing is embryonic, but alert to the salient issues. The structure of the industry reflects to some degree international initiatives yet displays unique characteristics. Extensive bibliographical problems remain, especially for Web monographs, and there is little evidence of collection management activity associated with electronic monographs in university libraries. A set of thirteen recommendations delineates areas that require further investigation, together with suggestions for enhancing awareness about the central issues identified in the research. A major conclusion concerns the need to establish a national forum to debate these issues and to foster electronic monograph publishing.
ABSTRACT
CONTENTS


ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72





ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72





ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72





ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72






ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72






ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72






ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72






ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72






ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72


10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 74



ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72





  1. INTRODUCTION


ABSTRACT 2

1.INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Background 4

1.2 Terms of reference 5

1.3 Survey variables 6

1.4 Working definitions 6

1.5 Parameters 7

1.5.1 Terminology 7

1.5.2 Scope 7

1.5.3 End-users survey 8

1.5.4 The report 8

1.6 Acknowledgements 8

2. METHODOLOGY 9

2.1 General management of the project 9

2.2 Literature search 9

2.3 Survey of publishers 10

2.3.1 Non-scholarly monograph or non-textbook publishers 10

2.3.2 UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 10

2.3.3 UK publishers of scholarly monographs and textbooks not engaged in electronic publishing 10

2.3.4 Non-UK publishers of electronic scholarly monographs and textbooks 11

2.3.5 Analysis 11

2.4 Case studies of UK electronic publishers 11

2.5 Survey of bibliographic sources and services 11

2.6 End-users survey 12

2.7 Use of data 12

3PUBLISHING CONTEXT 13

General debate about the status and future of the scholarly monograph 13

4.PUBLISHING PROCESS 18

4.1 Structure of the electronic monograph publishing trade 18

4.1.1 University presses 18

4.1.2 Non-University commercial publishers 18

4.1.3 Specialist publishers 18

4.1.4 New publishing structure 19

4.2 Implications for costs 20

4.3 Authoring 21

4.4 Management process of electronic publishing 21

4.4.1 Editorial responsibilities 22

4.4.2 Revision, monitoring and evaluation 22

5.Characteristics of Electronic Publishing Media 23

5.1General background to the medium 23

5.2.1 General background to the medium 24

5.2.2 Internet monographs in the UK 25

6Nature of content 28

6.2 Added value 28

6.2.1 Nature of added value components: Web 29

6.2.1.1 Incidence 31

6.2.2 Nature of added value components: CD-ROMs 33

6.2.3 Advantages of added value 34

6.2.4 Constraints and issues 34

6.3 Subject orientations 35

7.Issues Associated with the Physical Medium 39

7.1File formats 40

8.Access and Delivery 46

8.1.1 CD-ROMs 46

8.1.2 Web monographs 47

8.1.3 The future of legal deposit 47

8.2 Trade bibliographies 48

8.3 Publisher sites 49

8.4 Internet bookshops 50

9.Conclusions and Recommendations 54

9.1.1.National development 56

9.1.2.Gateway to UK electronic publishers 56

9.1.3.Universities as publishers 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

11. Appendices 69

11.1Appendix 1: UK scholarly electronic publishers 70

11.2Appendix 2: Pro forma used for survey of publishers' Web sites 71

11.3Appendix 3: UK scholarly non-electronic publishers 72





1.1 Background


Lancaster has been looking forward to paperless scholarly communication since 1976 but more recently the term “virtual library” has been coined, and we can begin to conceive of a new library-concept within not too many generations. Lancaster (1994) has also speculated on what will be meant by collection development by the year 2025, and has cited Dowlin who wrote of the need to move the library from a “fortress” model to an “information pipeline” model. Management of the electronic library encompasses the control of the traditional physical representations of knowledge and equally the location and delivery of electronic para-documents. Bibliographic control must extend its remit, and collection management must no longer centre on a locate-acquire-store-catalogue model but must move towards one which targets discover-access-facilitate (D-A-F) – although we must not forget a responsibility for maintaining or stabilising a collection against future needs (Atkinson, 1990 356). Toni Carbo (1997 56) has also noted that we need to learn to manage “new documents that are fundamentally different from those we have managed in the past” and has suggested a more user-centric approach. Libraries have moved from mass storage of resources (“Just in Case” services) to provide information when it is needed no matter where it is stored (“Just in Time” services), and are likely to move towards services customised for each individual user – a “Just for You” service. The Internet, information technology and a D-A-F approach make it possible; only library managers can make this trend happen. In examining the place of the electronic scholarly monograph within this scenario, this report wishes to emphasise possibilities for the future library user.
Within the context of today's electronic library and the increasing use made of the Internet and the World Wide Web for day-to-day research and work in libraries and information units, there is still surprisingly little reliance on digital originals. While many aspects of collection management can be aided or facilitated by means of the Internet, all libraries and information units currently depend on the printed page for their stock in trade, and the mindset remains rooted in the paper book or journal. Four years ago, Intner (1994 72) noted that libraries should handle “nonbooks” because people want them, and “certain formats have attributes that make them especially useful for libraries”. If libraries have been considering non-bibliocentric collections for so long, publishers must rise to the challenge.
Where electronic documents are available, they are normally journals, with a high percentage of these being facsimiles of paper originals. This seems to be due partly to the absence of suitable electronic material and partly to a lack of “confidence” in the medium. The absence of suitable tools with which to store, manipulate, and view such documents, the technical issues surrounding access or payment and the philosophical and legal issues relating to usage rights, copyright, authority/validity and trust must not be forgotten. Most publishers, libraries and library suppliers maintain a presence on the Web but the use to which their pages are put varies considerably at this stage.
It is evident from the literature and from the International Publishers Association survey, in particular, that scant attention has been paid to the publishing of electronic monographs (Müller, 1997). The survey included a number of comments which reflected this: “As the publishing of scholarly material in electronic form is such a new field, I do not believe that it is appropriate for a trade association…”, and “...the main reason people didn't fill out [the questionnaire] was that it was too early [in terms of their plans for electronic monograph publishing]”.
While very little work relating to electronic monographs and textbooks per se has been undertaken, other forms of electronic publishing have been the subjects of investigation. In particular, the eLib projects such as Eurotext, SCOPE and EDBANK have looked at on-demand publishing and offer substantial insights into the problems of creating and using electronic texts.
Electronic journal publishing has received consideration both within the eLib programme (for example, The Electronic Journal and Learned Societies or the Open Journal Framework: Integrating Electronic Journals with Networked Information Resources) and elsewhere. For a number of years electronic scholarly publishing has been synonymous with electronic journal publishing. Treloar (1996 135), for example, prefaces his article with the comment that, “for the purposes of this article scholarly publishing will be taken to mean the production of journal articles”. New electronic journals are being announced at the rate of twenty to thirty per week and about 30% of these fall into a broadly scholarly category. However, with the exception of texts added to electronic archives such as Project Gutenburg, the Oxford Text Archive, or Project Bartleby, relatively few monographs are made available on the Internet. As was suggested in the call for this research, journals are more manageable and, by virtue of their serial nature, tend to attract a stable user population. This may be because articles tend to be of a more manageable size and journal issues can easily be divided into parts and so are more easily delivered. The periodical nature of journals means that larger investments can be made, in the expectation of longer-term return. There are clearly also the incentives of currency and convenient access. One hypothesis propounded in the literature is that in the move towards greater availability of full-text electronic resources, the dividing line between journals and monographs is likely to become increasingly blurred.
There is, in addition, considerable debate (see Section 3.1) relating to the future of scholarly monographs per se which gives impetus to this project. The significance of the electronic publishing of scholarly monographs to the future of scholarly publishing in general is also debated (DeLoughry, 1993 A17; Freeman, 1993 A44). DeLoughry notes that “officials at many [US] presses say electronic publishing makes economic sense as printing costs continue to rise, pushing the prices of books and journals beyond the reach of many libraries and scholars”.
This is the context in which the aims of the research project as defined by the UKOLN terms of reference must be viewed. The research reported on here examines scholarly electronic publishing practice not only within the context of the electronic library but also within the field of collection management.
Central to collection management in all models are resource allocation, selection policies and procedures, selection criteria, selection sources and services, acquisitions/technical services, collection evaluation and review and co-operation between libraries. The provision and publishing of monographs in electronic formats impinges on all of these activities as well as on the provision of access to the library's resources.

1.2 Terms of reference


There has been some uncertainty as to the incidence of electronic publishing within the UK and this constituted the central focus of the study.
Given the hypothesis that the availability of electronic monographs has some particular advantages, the study examined the concept of the monograph in the context of electronic publishing. The advantages that were identified in the research call for proposals included the suggestion that information can be updated on a regular basis, without waiting for new editions. Textbooks often run to an unwieldy 500 pages and students may be forced to buy a complete volume, when only a small section is needed while network versions could enable the purchase of relevant sections only. Electronic textbooks additionally allow the inclusion of multimedia applications, providing invaluable teaching tools, such as video clips of clinical operations.
The specific terms of reference were wide-ranging and the research was asked to address as many as possible of the following elements:


  1. The current extent of electronic publishing of scholarly monographs and textbooks

  2. The market role of any growth in the foreseeable future

  3. The means by which an electronic monograph can be identified, in a more fluid environment

  4. Granularity

  5. The likely nature of electronic books (for example: what happens to a book when hypertext is added? Does the book become less of a self-contained package and hence less easily marketable? Does the writing style need to change to take account of non-linearity of reading?)

  6. The significance of the draft BICI standard for identifying book items and contributions

  7. The business and pricing models for composites

  8. The outcomes and impact of custom publishing initiatives (for example, Primis, eLib projects, Docutech)

  9. How value may be added to existing print books through the electronic medium (for example, mounting tables of contents or first chapters on the Internet, etc as loss-leaders)

  10. How value can be added to electronic works in more innovative ways (for example, reader participation and debates about issues raised)

  11. The impact that electronic publishing of scholarly monographs and textbooks is likely to have on publishers and intermediary vendors, and on library services and end users. Is it likely that self-publishing of monographs will occur, or could there be an increasing role for university presses? Will this be in any sense a solution to the monograph publishing crisis?

1.3 Survey variables


The study set out to examine a range of publisher, bookseller and library supplier resources with a view to determining current practices, capabilities, charging mechanisms and formats. To this end the research covered a variety of different environments and used a framework of variables in order to reveal the existence of any differences in practices. The variables that most seem to warrant inclusion are as follows.
The range of resources examined included those that are available on:

  • CD-ROM;

  • diskette; and via

  • the Internet.

Additionally, the range of resources included some from each of the following sources:



  • university publishers;

  • commercial publishers;

  • specialist publishers (for example, professional bodies or university departments);

  • booksellers;

  • library suppliers; and

  • authors (self-publication).

Resources were selected to include:



  • both free and charged documents;

  • complete, text-only documents;

  • complete multimedia documents;

  • hypertext documents;

  • virtual documents formed by the integration of parts;

  • partial documents available as introductions to texts that are either charged or in another medium;

  • documents which have added value over their print counterparts; and

  • both documents created for the electronic medium and those simply copied to it.



1.4 Working definitions


For the purposes of this research, the term “scholarly monograph” has been taken to mean a single learned work on a defined topic (or series of topics) “used for, or in the course of, tertiary education or research”. “Textbook” is defined as a category of monograph having the prescribed purpose of teaching – a “manual of instruction”. We do not consider that the term “single work” requires the work to be a discrete unit, wholly available/accessible at one time and in one place, or in a single format (for example, text). In so far as is possible we have limited the research to the above definition.
In undertaking the research it has become clear that the term “monograph” is variously understood by the professions, indeed some publishers have seen it as including encyclopaedia, for example. Another definition offered by a publishing house interpreted a “scholarly monograph” as “something that is at present invariably published in hardback only, by a single author, or an edited collection in a very specific subject area… They are research works for a relatively small number of specialist scholars. Occasionally, they may be subsequently published in paperback.” The authors wish to emphasise that their more general definition forms the basis of this research.
The Report of the Joint Information Systems Committee & Publishers Association Working Party on fair dealing in an electronic environment. (1997) noted the absence of any formally recognised definition for “electronic publication”; therefore this report views it as applying to texts made available in any computer-mediated medium: diskette, CD-ROM or via the Internet, for example. We also concur with their interpretation that electronic publications may include “both publications created specifically in electronic format and publications originally created in paper format and then later transferred to electronic format under conditions of conformity with copyright law. ”
This report uses the term “electronic monographs” as a generic term to include both scholarly monographs and textbooks. The term “Web monograph” has been used for electronic monographs published on the Internet.

1.5 Parameters



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