Plagiarism constitutes the majority of academic ethics violations



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Page 8 Student Handbook on Referencing
Common Mistakes

Submitting a References or
“Sources” section at the end of an assignment without including endnotes/footnotes or parenthetical citation inappropriate places in the body of the work.

Citing online sources with only a URL
within the body of the work. Most citation styles require other information, such as access date and/or authors.

Failing to put direct quotations in quotation marks, or indent quotations to make it clear that you used actual words from a text. This error is especially insidious. It is easy to cut and paste from online sources, but it is also easy to detect this.

Failing to be consistent in your citation style throughout the assignment.

Taking inadequate notes on sources consulted during the research process, which leads to inadequate referencing. Sloppiness is not an excuse for plagiarism.
Sloppiness and
ignorance are not
acceptable excuses for
plagiarism.

Student Handbook on Referencing Page 9
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
Familiarize yourself with
the rules of citation. Students are expected to be knowledgeable about how to correctly cite and reference sources in their academic work. This handbook provides a general overview of citation and resources for further reading. Remember that the purpose of citation is to properly acknowledge your sources and to provide enough information to allow a reader to find the source material from which your information is generated.
Take detailed notes during research process and
cite as you write. Oftentimes students focus on gathering content for their research and forget to pay equal attention to diligently writing down the sources of the content. Writing down proper reference citation, including accurate page numbers and versions, in your note- taking process will assure that you can correctly attribute source material when you begin writing your academic assignment. In addition, citing as you work makes it less likely that you will forget to cite a source and unintentionally plagiarize. Any work you allow others to see, including draft papers submitted for review, maybe assumed to be written with proper citation unless you indicate otherwise, which is yet another reason to cite as you write.
Plan ahead accordingly to
reduce stress and time
pressure.
Many times students plagiarize as a shortcut to proper researching and referencing when they are under stress to meet deadlines. If time or stress management is an issue for you, address it as soon as possible to avoid the temptation to commit plagiarism. The Student Assistance Program can help you with any personal problems you maybe facing
(443-287-7000; http://www.jhu.edu/
hr1/fasap
/BSPHsap.html
).
When in doubt, ask your professor for clarification on
citing style.
While the professor may indicate which citation style he or she prefers in academic assignments, many times this information is left out of assignment instruction. It is your duty as a student to meet the citation standards required by your professor, so if you have doubts on when and how to cite your sources on assignments, then you should ask your professor for clarification. In addition, unless otherwise indicated by your professor, it is assumed that all classroom assignments and exams must be completed individually.
When in doubt, cite.
If you are unclear if a specific phrase is sufficiently unique to necessitate a quotation, or if a fact is common knowledge that does not require a citation, you should err on the side of caution and cite.




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