Office of the Pro Vice-Chancellor (Business)



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2.2.1.1 How to reference in-text

There are two options for in-text referencing



  • Adding the citation at the end of the sentence.

  • Using the author’s name as part of your sentence.

  • When paraphrasing include the author’s name and date of publication.

e.g.

Lack of variability in a product is an important measure of its quality (Shannon 2003).

OR

Shannon (2003) describes the role of statistics in minimising product variability.


2.2.2 Direct quotes

When quoting, the exact words of the author(s) are used. Direct quotes should be kept to a minimum.
2.2.2.1 How to reference in-text

There are two options for in-text referencing



  • Adding the citation at the end of the sentence

  • Using the author’s name as part of your sentence

  • When using direct quotes include the author’s name, date of publication and page number

e.g.

Statistical thinking can be defined as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding, managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (Shannon 2003, p. 5).



OR

Shannon defines statistical thinking as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding, managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (2003, p. 5).




2.3 A reference list

  • The publication details of every item cited / used in your writing need to be included in the reference list at the end of your paper. Any websites used must also be documented in full. This enables the reader to locate the source if they wish.

  • Each reference list entry requires a specific format depending on the reference type i.e. whether it is a book, book chapter, journal article, website, etc. This is indicated in the following tables (page 6 onwards).

  • You must use a variety of sources in your written work e.g. books, journals and websites etc. This indicates that you have researched widely.




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