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Alternatively an anonymous article



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Alternatively an anonymous article e.g. from an encyclopedia or dictionary can be cited in the text with no entry in the reference list.

No reference needed.





The new Palgrave dictionary of money & finance (1992) defines hedging as …

Several items with same author and year

If you are referring to more than one work written by the same author in the same year, the letters a,b,c etc are added to the date to indicate which one you mean.

In the reference list the works are listed alphabetically according to the title. If the title starts with ‘A’, ‘An’, or ‘The’, the alphabetical order is determined by the second word in the title




Hill, CWL 2004a, Global business today, 3rd edn, McGraw Hill / Irwin, Boston.

Hill, CWL 2004b, Strategic management theory: an integrated approach, 6th edn, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.




Hill (2004a) suggests that...

Hill (2004b) suggests that...

...(Hill 2004b).

...(Hill 2004a).

Several items with same first author and year

When an author publishes more than one work in the same year, but with different co-authors, the name of the second author determines the order in which the works appear in the reference list.


Kotler, P, Brown, L, Adam, S & Armstrong, G 2004, Marketing, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Kotler, P & Lee, N 2004, ‘Best of breed’, Stanford Social Innovation Review , vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 14-23.



Kotler et al. (2004) suggested that...
Kotler and Lee (2004) offer the opinion that...
… (Kotler et al. 2004).

… (Kotler & Lee 2004).


Secondary citation (citation within a citation)

A secondary citation is when you refer to the work of one author cited by another author.

Primary sources are preferred.

If the original source is not available you must include the name of both writers for in-text references.

Only the source you have read appears in the reference list.




Horton, S 2006, Access by design: a guide to universal usability for web designers, New Riders, Berkeley, California.


‘Form ever follows function’ (Sullivan, cited in Horton 2006, p. 1).

In 1896 Louis H. Sullivan observed that ‘form ever follows function’ (cited in Horton 2006, p. 1).





2.4.1 Printed material and multimedia


Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list


In-text citation





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