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Chapter 1

What Is Psychology?
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of

a.

behavior and mental processes.

b.

diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders.

c.

conscious and unconscious mental processes.

d.

the mind.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
2. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes describes


a.

behaviorism.

c.

psychology.

b.

psychoanalysis.

d.

clinical psychology.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Factual
3. Eduardo DeLeon is engaged in scientific research involving the study of behavior and mental processes. DeLeon is a


a.

psychotherapist.

c.

psychiatrist.

b.

psychoanalyst.

d.

psychologist.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Applied
4. As a science, Psychology has four goals. Which of the following is NOT one of those goals?


a.

eliminate behavior

c.

predict behavior

b.

explain behavior

d.

control behavior

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Factual
5. A __________ proposes a relationship among observed events.


a.

science

c.

prediction

b.

theory

d.

school of psychology

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Factual
6. A satisfactory psychological theory of thirst would


a.

be able to predict when people will or will not drink.

b.

be able to describe age-related drinking behavior.

c.

both a and b.

d.

none of these.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
7. Theories allow psychologists to make __________ such as a client’s chance of recovery.


a.

descriptions

c.

predictions

b.

explanations

d.

beliefs

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Applied
8. Which of the following is NOT true of psychological theories?


a.

Theories make assumptions about behavior.

b.

Theories explain behavior and mental processes.

c.

Predictions are derived from theories.

d.

Theories are always discarded as new observations are made.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
9. The clinical psychologist’s aim in applying prediction and control principles to a client’s behavior is to


a.

decide the treatment.

b.

help the client meet his or her goals in treatment.

c.

allow the client a narrow range of options for his or her behavior.

d.

use a database to formulate a treatment for the client.

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1

MSC: TYPE: Applied
10. Dr. Rossini is developing a training program to help a young woman with mental retardation to sort clothes in the laundry of the residential facility in which she lives. Whenever she performs her job according to the protocol, she receives a reward. If she does not stay on task, she receives no reward. Applying the principles of learning theory to the direct modification of human conduct is referred to as


a.

pure research.

c.

psychoanalysis.

b.

basic research.

d.

the practice of psychology.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
11. The results of ________ research in the study of the perceptual development of infants and lower animals is often useful in formulating the treatment of visual disorders in humans.


a.

pure

c.

controlled

b.

basic

d.

action

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
12. Applied research is research undertaken


a.

with humans.

c.

for its own sake.

b.

with lower animals.

d.

to find solutions to specific problems.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Factual

13. The difference between pure and applied research is the difference between



a.

prediction and control.

b.

practice and theory.

c.

research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems.

d.

application and adaptation.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
14. Research using computers to understand artificial intelligence is an example of __________ research.


a.

pure

c.

longitudinal

b.

applied

d.

none of these

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
15. Dr. Langer is treating a college student for depression in his private practice. Most likely Dr. Langer is a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

counseling

c.

educational

b.

school

d.

clinical

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Applied
16. Jean, a divorced mother with two children, married Harry, a widower with a teenage daughter. From the onset of her relationship with Harry, Jean had difficulty in relating to his daughter. Once married, the family problems between stepmother and stepdaughter became exacerbated. Who might be consulted?


a.

a developmental psychologist

c.

a counseling psychologist

b.

an educational psychologist

d.

a psychiatric social worker

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
17. Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems is usually the job of a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

clinical

c.

school

b.

counseling

d.

educational

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
18. School psychologists are employed by school districts to


a.

develop achievement and aptitude tests.

b.

identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning.

c.

study hereditary and environmental influences on the development of students.

d.

develop instructional methods for teachers to employ.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
19. Interpretation of a client’s symptoms is to a clinical psychologist as the development of an achievement test is to a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

social

c.

educational

b.

developmental

d.

personality

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
20. Dr. Kendall is interested in the effects of teacher style (warm and supportive versus formal and objective) on the learning of mathematics by sixth graders. Most likely, Dr. Kendall is a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

educational

c.

school

b.

personality

d.

experimental

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
21. __________ psychologists study the relationship between genetic and environmental factors on growth of the individual through the life span.


a.

Biocultural

c.

Developmental

b.

Personality

d.

Social

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
22. The study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to __________ psychologists.


a.

clinical

c.

community

b.

personality

d.

social

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
23. __________ psychologists are concerned with racism, sexism, and ageism.


a.

Community

c.

Forensic

b.

Personality

d.

Social

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
24. __________ psychologists focus on social influences on behavior, while __________psychologists focus on the influence of an individual’s traits on behavior.


a.

Personality; Social

c.

Social; Personality

b.

School; Educational

d.

Educational; School

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-5&6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Factual
25. A theory that divides human behavior into two basic traits, introversion and extraversion, was probably formulated by a __________ psychologist.


a.

developmental

c.

behavioral

b.

personality

d.

clinical

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied

26. How the group affects the individual and the effects of the individual on the group are the concerns of __________ psychologists.



a.

clinical

c.

community

b.

sociological

d.

social

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
27. An environmental psychologist would study all of the following EXCEPT:


a.

how extreme temperatures influence human behavior

b.

how loud noises interfere with human concentration

c.

how human behavior affects the natural environment

d.

how athletes improve their performance

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
28. Which of the following psychologists is most likely to conduct pure research?


a.

experimental

c.

consumer

b.

organizational

d.

human factors

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
29. Industrial psychologists and organizational psychologists study the behavior of people in


a.

workplaces.

c.

universities.

b.

research laboratories.

d.

court rooms.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
30. An organizational psychologist is most likely to study people in


a.

court rooms.

c.

sports.

b.

businesses.

d.

schools.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Factual
31. The design of the instrument layout of a new helicopter was carried out by industrial engineers in consultation with __________ psychologists.


a.

consumer

c.

industrial

b.

experimental

d.

human factors

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
32. After an advertising campaign with a catchy jingle failed to generate sales for a new shampoo, the advertising director hired Dr. Faith Brewster to analyze the defective campaign and to propose an alternative approach. Faith is most likely a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

consumer

c.

organizational

b.

social

d.

human factors

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied

33. As much as she tried to lose weight, Pauline could not achieve her goal of 15% weight loss. Accordingly, she made an appointment to consult with Dr. Richman, a __________ psychologist.



a.

clinical

c.

human factors

b.

counseling

d.

health

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
34. A fitness center was looking for someone to direct a new program that linked diet to an exercise program. The center’s director wanted to hire someone with a background in stress management and the control of health problems. Most likely, she was looking for a(n)


a.

personal trainer.

c.

health psychologist.

b.

sports psychologist.

d.

aerobics instructor.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
35. A __________ psychologist examines ways in which lifestyle, habits, and attitudes are related to heart disease, cancer and diabetes.


a.

clinical

c.

counseling

b.

health

d.

forensic

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Factual
36. Josephine is a track athlete who does not perform well under extreme pressure to win. With what at type of psychologist should she consult?


a.

counseling psychologist

c.

health psychologist

b.

industrial psychologist

d.

sport psychologist

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
37. A forensic psychologist may be involved in any of the following activities EXCEPT:


a.

testing the mental health of a defendant in a criminal trial.

b.

analyzing criminal behavior patterns.

c.

consulting with attorneys about selecting jury members.

d.

developing standardized intelligence tests.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-6 OBJ: 2

MSC: TYPE: Applied
38. Yolanda gives a careful description of all of her thoughts, experiences, and emotions after she underwent a “near-death” experience in which she felt herself leaving her body. The method Yolanda and the researcher are using is called


a.

insight.

c.

recovered memory.

b.

self-revelation.

d.

introspection.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-7 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Applied

39. What distinguished Wilhelm Wundt’s contribution from other contributions to psychology?



a.

He wrote the first textbook of psychology.

b.

He defined psychology as the science of behavior.

c.

He established psychology as a laboratory science.

d.

He studied insight in lower animals.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
40. The first person to use scientific methods to investigate psychological phenomenon was


a.

Wilhelm Wundt.

c.

Charles Darwin.

b.

William James.

d.

Gustav Fechner.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
41. Wilhelm Wundt founded the school of psychology called


a.

functionalism.

c.

behaviorism.

b.

psychoanalysis.

d.

structuralism.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
42. Under the school of structuralism, Wundt used a method called ____________ to look into one’s own objective sensations and subjective feelings.


a.

conditioning

c.

introspection

b.

psychoanalysis

d.

insight

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
43. Wilhelm Wundt felt that the object of psychology was the study of the mind as a natural event and that the best way to approach the study of psychology was to


a.

break down conscious experience into basic elements.

b.

focus on the continuity between conscious experience and behavior.

c.

analyze the relation between sensory stimuli and behavior.

d.

determine the functions of conscious experience.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
44. Structuralism defined experience in terms of


a.

behavioral tendencies and habits.

b.

the continuity of consciousness and unconscious processes.

c.

the functions of consciousness.

d.

sensations, feelings, and mental images.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual

45. Functionalism was established by



a.

G. Stanley Hall.

c.

John Watson.

b.

Wilhelm Wundt.

d.

William James.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
46. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a functionalist psychologist?


a.

The mind is composed of discrete elements.

b.

Perception is greater than the sum of its parts.

c.

The only object of psychology is the study of behavior.

d.

Adaptation to the environment is the purpose of mental processes and behavior.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
47. The school of psychology that emphasizes the purposes of mind and behavior and views consciousness as a continuous, not discrete, process is called


a.

functionalism.

c.

structuralism.

b.

behaviorism.

d.

psychoanalysis.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
48. A functionalist would disagree with which of the following statements?


a.

Consciousness can be broken down into elemental parts.

b.

Consciousness is a continuous process.

c.

Behavior and mental processes are adaptive.

d.

all of these

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
49. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were __________ than those less fit.


a.

more intelligent

c.

more conscious of their surroundings

b.

better adapted to the environment

d.

better at problem solving

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
50. The functionalists expanded the study of psychology to include behavior as well as consciousness and asked how mental processes and behavior


a.

were broken down into sensations, feelings, and thoughts.

b.

were part of the unconscious.

c.

led the individual to self-knowledge.

d.

assisted the organism to adapt to the environment.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-8 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual

51. John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of



a.

stream of consciousness.

c.

measurable behavior.

b.

unconscious mental processes.

d.

sensation, feelings, and mental images.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
52. John B. Watson established __________ as a school of psychology.


a.

behaviorism

c.

structuralism

b.

functionalism

d.

psychoanalysis

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
53. John Watson proposed a definition of psychology that omitted all of the following EXCEPT


a.

mental processes.

c.

consciousness.

b.

behavior.

d.

feelings and thoughts.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
54. B. F. Skinner made major contributions to


a.

structuralism.

c.

behaviorism.

b.

functionalism.

d.

Gestalt psychology.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
55. Ted taught his cat to turn in a circle every time he waved his hand in a circular motion. After the response Ted would pet the cat and give it a treat. From Skinner’s perspective the treat would be considered a


a.

bribe.

c.

reinforcer.

b.

stimulus.

d.

control.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
56. B. F. Skinner studied learning in lower animals by using


a.

reinforcement.

c.

introspection.

b.

insight.

d.

trial and error.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
57. Watson and Skinner had one objective in common, which was the


a.

treatment of disorders.

b.

acquisition of behavior through conditioning/reinforcement.

c.

use of mental imagery.

d.

discovery of unconscious conflicts.

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

58. The school of psychology that emphasized the organization of perceptual experience into wholes and the integration of separate stimuli into meaningful patterns is termed



a.

psychoanalysis.

c.

structuralism.

b.

functionalism.

d.

Gestalt psychology.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
59. Behaviorism is to learning theory as Gestalt psychology is to


a.

psychotherapy.

c.

perception.

b.

adaptation to the environment.

d.

habit.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-9 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
60. Gestalt psychologists believed that problem solving is not always accomplished by mechanical repetition but rather is accomplished by sudden ___________ in which a solution is found.


a.

insight

c.

introspection

b.

reinforcement

d.

evolution

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
61. For the Gestalt psychologists, learning was largely a matter of


a.

trial and error.

c.

rote practice and repetition.

b.

insight and understanding.

d.

habit and environmental adaptation.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
62. In his research on problem solving in chimpanzees, Kohler concluded that the chimp suddenly solved a problem and reached the banana because of


a.

intelligence.

c.

environmental clues.

b.

reinforcement.

d.

insight.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
63. Psychoanalysis emphasizes unconscious processes while behaviorism emphasizes


a.

perception.

c.

sensation.

b.

observation.

d.

introspection.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: C
64. The school of psychology that places unconscious impulses and desires at the center of human behavior is


a.

psychoanalysis.

c.

functionalism.

b.

humanism-existentialism.

d.

Gestalt psychology.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
65. The psychodynamic theory of human motivation centers on


a.

insight.

c.

behavior.

b.

the unconscious.

d.

introspection.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual
66. Psychoanalysis differs from structuralism, functionalism and behaviorism in that it is also a method of


a.

scientific inquiry.

c.

self-knowledge.

b.

introspection.

d.

psychotherapy.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
67. Freud’s technique of psychotherapy is called


a.

reality therapy.

c.

psychoanalysis.

b.

insight therapy.

d.

behavior therapy.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
68. That people are motivated to satisfy unconscious urges and to avoid guilt feelings at the same time is an assumption of


a.

psychodynamic theory.

c.

behaviorism.

b.

the humanistic-existential approach.

d.

Gestalt psychology.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
69. Which of the following statements distinguishes psychoanalysis from other schools of psychology?


a.

Unconscious processes have the greatest impact on behavior.

b.

Learning is the basis of behavior.

c.

Humans are potentially good.

d.

The sum of the parts is more important than the separate parts.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-10 OBJ: 3

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
70. __________ oriented psychologists use techniques such as CAT scans, PET scans, and electrical stimulation of the brain to show that specific sites in the brain mediate thoughts, emotions, and behavior.


a.

Cognitively

c.

Behaviorally

b.

Developmentally

d.

Biologically

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual

71. Psychologists with a biological perspective study the links between ______________ and behavior.



a.

brain activity

c.

heredity

b.

hormone activity

d.

all of these

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
72. Dr. Levy studies the influences of hormones in determining maternal behavior and sexual behavior in rats. Levy is most probably a


a.

Gestalt psychologist.

c.

biological psychologist.

b.

behavioral psychologist.

d.

psychoanalyst.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied
73. The statement that the mental state associated with being in love can be reduced to chemical changes in the brain is most likely to be made by a psychologist taking the __________ perspective.


a.

biological

c.

cognitive

b.

behavioral

d.

developmental

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
74. Cognitive psychologists would be least interested in


a.

mental representations.

c.

perception.

b.

memory.

d.

behavior in social settings.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
75. Cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying


a.

animal learning and motivation.

b.

human thinking and memory.

c.

genetic and hormonal effects on behavior.

d.

introspection and behavioral disorders.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
76. Neural processing is to the biological perspective as information processing is to the __________ perspective.


a.

developmental

c.

learning

b.

psychodynamic

d.

cognitive

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

77. In reviewing the contents of several psychology journals, a graduate student noted a marked increase in the number of articles on memory and thinking over the past dozen years. He concluded that there was increased interest in the __________ perspective.



a.

behavioral

c.

biological

b.

psychodynamic

d.

cognitive

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
78. The humanistic-existential perspective unites __________ and __________ as central principles to its approach.


a.

brain; behavior

c.

mental processes; consciousness

b.

self-fulfillment; free choice

d.

culture; values

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
79. Lydia Corfield, a humanistic-existential psychotherapist, is most likely to make which of the following statements to her clients about their objectives for therapy?


a.

We will uncover the unconscious ideas that are at the source of your disorder.

b.

We will lay out a program to extinguish your disordered behavior and condition appropriate behavior.

c.

You will explore your perceptions and thoughts in order to discover who you really are.

d.

You need to identify the ethnic and social and environmental factors that may be at the root of your mental disorder.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
80. Cathy was a very successful real estate agent. At age 36 she decided to donate her wealth to charity and become a missionary in Haiti, where she has been living in relative contentment for the past two years. Which perspective would best explain Cathy’s behavior?


a.

psychodynamic

c.

humanistic-existential

b.

social-cognitive

d.

developmental

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
81. The view that people have the freedom to choose and be responsible for their own behavior represents the ____________ perspective.


a.

humanistic

c.

cognitive

b.

existential

d.

psychodynamic

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-11 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
82. In comparison with traditional psychoanalysis, neoanalysts place less emphasis on


a.

conscious choice.

c.

scientific research.

b.

unconscious processes.

d.

psychotherapy.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-11&12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual

83. __________ psychologists take the position that learning is essential in describing, predicting, controlling, and explaining behavior.



a.

Neoanalytic

c.

Developmental

b.

Behavioral

d.

Biological

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
84. Unconscious processes, dream analysis and sexual and aggressive impulses are most likely to be used by which perspective?


a.

psychodynamic

c.

biological

b.

behavioral

d.

none of these

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-11&12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: BTC
85. Both social-cognitive theorists and behaviorists adhere to the __________ perspective.


a.

humanistic-existential

c.

neoanalytic

b.

learning

d.

developmental

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
86. Five-year-old Todd watched his father at his workbench, hammering together a birdhouse. Soon Todd was next to his father, hammer in hand, tapping the workbench. Todd’s behavior is best described by which perspective?


a.

social-cognitive

c.

sociocultural

b.

behavioral

d.

neoanalytic

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied
87. A distinction between behavioral and social-cognitive perspectives is that the former emphasizes __________, and the latter emphasizes __________ in learning.


a.

reinforcement; observation

c.

brain processes; social processes

b.

conditioning; development

d.

introspection; self-determination

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
88. Jean Blake, a psychiatrist who is strongly influenced by the social-cognitive perspective, is most likely to take which approach in treating a male client who is extremely shy of females?


a.

Observe and imitate models engaged in social interactions with women.

b.

Condition positive emotional responses to women.

c.

Uncover the unconscious conflicts in the approach and avoidance of women.

d.

Prescribe that he take anti-anxiety medication before going out with a woman.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied

89. The issues of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status are the concerns of the __________ perspective.



a.

sociocultural

c.

psychoanalytic

b.

humanistic-existential

d.

social-cognitive

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
90. Dr. Maloff is studying the effects of ethnic bias on the school performance of immigrant children. Most likely, Maloff is a __________ psychologist.


a.

psychoanalytic

c.

sociocultural

b.

behavioral

d.

school

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied
91. Which of the following is not likely the concern of sociocultural psychologists?


a.

alcohol abuse among ethnic minority groups

b.

racial bias

c.

gender roles

d.

color perception

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
92. Dr. Rabin is studying whether Asian men are more or less likely to seek treatment for clinical depression as part of a larger study of Asian men’s attitudes toward health issues. Dr. Rabin is most likely a(n) __________ psychologist.


a.

humanistic

c.

industrial

b.

sociocultural

d.

personality

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied
93. Dr. Jacobi is studying the effects of bilingualism on the intellectual development of children. She wants to know whether learning both English and Spanish has an impact on intelligence scores in both languages. Most likely, Dr. Jacobi follows a __________ perspective.


a.

psychoanalytic

c.

gestalt

b.

humanistic

d.

sociocultural

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Applied
94. The sociocultural perspective is concerned with the


a.

issues of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

b.

behavior of society.

c.

makeup of social and cultural organizations.

d.

influence of a group on the behavior of the individual.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual

95. Membership in an ethnic group is defined by common features such as



a.

genetic variables.

b.

cultural heritage, language, and common history.

c.

socioeconomic status and political identity.

d.

attitudes, values, and religion.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-12 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
96. Kenneth and Mamie Clark conducted research on the negative effects of ______________ on African American children.


a.

intelligence testing

c.

school segregation

b.

extra-curricular activities

d.

music instruction

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
97. Whose research on the negative effects of school segregation on African American children was cited by the United States Supreme Court when it overturned the “separate but equal” school doctrine in 1954?


a.

The Watsons

c.

The Rumbaughs

b.

The Clarks

d.

The Sherifs

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
98. Recent research on the role of ethnicity and cultural bias on human behavior has included all of the following topics EXCEPT


a.

intelligence testing.

c.

achievement.

b.

mental health.

d.

emotion.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-12&13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
99. _________ refers to the concepts of femininity and masculinity that are defined by ones culture.


a.

Gender

c.

Identity

b.

Sex

d.

Prejudice

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual
100. Prior to becoming the first female president of the APA, Mary Whiton Calkins


a.

was denied a doctorate at Harvard University because of her gender.

b.

attended Harvard as a guest because they did not accept female students.

c.

was offered but declined a doctorate at Radcliff college for women.

d.

All of these are true.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual

101. Contributions to psychology by women researchers include research on all of the following topics EXCEPT



a.

parent-child attachment.

c.

primacy and recency effects.

b.

inaccuracies of memory.

d.

introspection in research.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-13 OBJ: 4

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
102. Critical thinking is associated with


a.

skepticism.

c.

disbelief.

b.

respect.

d.

opposition.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
103. Amy listened to the salesperson describe the qualities of a well-known sport utility vehicle that she was considering buying. She asked about the gas mileage, road stability, and frequency of repairs. The salesperson assured her that this model had the best record in its class on all of the variables. She checked the salesperson’s answers against the ratings in a consumer’s guide and brought the discrepancies to his attention. We can say that Amy is


a.

feisty.

c.

argumentative.

b.

skeptical.

d.

a ‘know-it-all.’

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
104. After the political debate, Nikki went to the town hall to find out which candidate’s claims were best supported by the government documents on file there. Nikki can be described as


a.

a difficult person.

c.

a critical thinker.

b.

cynical about politicians’ claims.

d.

prone to argue.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
105. A form of reasoning characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements and arguments defines


a.

critical thinking.

c.

rational mental processes.

b.

point and counterpoint.

d.

self-interest.

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
106. Which of the following is NOT a principle of critical thinking?


a.

Be skeptical.

c.

Examine the assumptions of arguments.

b.

Examine the definitions of terms.

d.

Consider the credentials of the authority.

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual

107. In terms of principles of critical thinking, the statement “Intelligence is genetically based” needs to be examined for its



a.

assumptions or premises.

c.

oversimplification of the question.

b.

definition of intelligence.

d.

all of these.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
108. The scientific method allows us to


a.

support popular opinion.

c.

justify our values.

b.

maintain traditions.

d.

test ideas and refine knowledge.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-14 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
109. A(n) __________ is a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research.


a.

observation

c.

theory

b.

scientific method

d.

hypothesis

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
110. Which of the following is a valid hypothesis?


a.

Viewing TV violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children.

b.

Viewing TV violence may influence children’s behavior.

c.

Viewing TV violence is unlikely to change children’s behavior.

d.

None of these.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
111. A hypothesis is an assumption or a best guess that


a.

becomes a selection factor in research.

c.

can be tested by gathering evidence.

b.

is accepted if it is popular.

d.

provides an operational definition.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
112. If participants are able to choose treatment in a scientific study, this is called a ____________ that is a source of bias that could influence the results.


a.

correlation

c.

hypothesis

b.

selection factor

d.

placebo

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

113. A doctor concludes from evidence that having yearly physical exams helps people stay healthy. However, she has not considered the risk of a selection factor; thus, the doctor may ignore the possibility that



a.

healthy people may schedule exams more often than others.

b.

some people have better genes than others.

c.

people who are sick go to the doctor more often.

d.

hypochondriacs do the same thing.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
114. As a scientist, you try not to speculate or draw conclusions when you do not have evidence. This approach is consistent with your use of


a.

common sense.

c.

good economic decisions.

b.

personal experience.

d.

the scientific method.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-15 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
115. In selecting research participants, the results can be generalized if the sample represents the


a.

ideas of the researcher.

c.

target population.

b.

commonsense views of the times.

d.

theory in question.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-15&16 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
116. A _______ is a segment of a population that is targeted for study.


a.

sample

c.

team

b.

group

d.

all of these

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-16 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
117. Dr. Davis wants to study the TV viewing habits of elementary school children. He selects 50 children from local schools to participate in his research. These groups of students would be considered the


a.

population.

c.

representative group.

b.

sample.

d.

none of these.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
118. If you conclude that the participants in a study are a representative sample, then you can __________ from the research sample to the larger population.


a.

replicate

c.

generalize

b.

speculate

d.

sample

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-16 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied

119. In a __________, each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate.



a.

random sample

c.

stratified sample

b.

selection sample

d.

free sample

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-16 OBJ: 5

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
120. If 12% of the population is African American, what percentage of a stratified population would be African American?


a.

all but 12%

c.

12%

b.

24%

d.

9%

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-16 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
121. Would a sample of children from an affluent suburban school district be considered a representative sample of American children?


a.

Yes, because public education is available to all children.

b.

No, because affluent suburban schools tend to be less racially, ethnically, and economically diverse than the nation as a whole.

c.

No, because they are nothing like the average American child.

d.

Yes, because they have all the advantages and none of the disadvantages.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-16 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
122. The bias stemming from the likelihood that those who offer to participate in certain kinds of surveys differ systematically from those who are less likely to volunteer is known as


a.

selection factors.

c.

self-selection.

b.

volunteer bias.

d.

stratified selection.

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-16&17 &24

OBJ: 5 MSC: TYPE: Factual
123. A ________ is a method of collecting information about individuals or small groups.


a.

correlation

c.

survey

b.

journal

d.

case study

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-17 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
124. Case study methods are often used to study __________ cases.


a.

controversial

c.

stratified

b.

rare

d.

random

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-17 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
125. The ___________ method of observation may produce inaccurate results because of gaps and inconsistencies in people’s memory.


a.

case study

c.

survey

b.

observational

d.

case study and survey

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-17&18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
126. The __________ method uses interviews and questionnaires to collect information from large numbers of people.


a.

case study

c.

experimental

b.

scientific

d.

survey

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-17 OBJ: 5

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
127. One explanation for the failure of a survey to predict events is that the survey participants do not __________ the general population.


a.

influence

c.

represent

b.

select

d.

limit

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-17&18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
128. An advantage of survey research is that


a.

it is less subject to volunteer bias.

c.

it allows you to have a large sample size.

b.

it allows you to get in-depth information.

d.

it allows you to work in a lab.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-17 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
129. Working for a consumer research organization, a woman needs to learn about behavior that she can neither observe in its natural setting nor study experimentally. She probably will use the __________ method.


a.

observational

c.

experimental

b.

case study

d.

survey

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-17 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
130. All of the following are disadvantages of survey research EXCEPT


a.

Respondents may have inaccurate self-reports.

b.

Respondents may answer in a way that they think is socially desirable.

c.

Respondents may answer the questions in the comfort of their own home.

d.

Respondents may lie about or exaggerate their own behavior.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied

131. In __________, researchers study behavior where it actually happens, or “in the field.”



a.

experiments

c.

naturalistic observations

b.

correlational research

d.

case studies

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual
132. Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees by means of the __________ method.


a.

case study

c.

survey

b.

naturalistic observation

d.

experimental

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: A
133. You are interested in studying whether preschool boys engage in more aggressive play than preschool girls. You decide to watch children playing in a day care setting. You are using the __________ method.


a.

case study

c.

cause-effect

b.

interview

d.

naturalistic observation

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
134. If you want to be certain that the behavior of interest to your research is as natural as possible, you will want to use a(n)


a.

laboratory procedure.

c.

naturalistic observation.

b.

expert interviewer.

d.

validity scale.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
135. Unobtrusive measures strive to minimize __________ during naturalistic observation.


a.

experimenters’ expectations

b.

the time involved

c.

inaccurate reporting

d.

interference with the behaviors being observed

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
136. You decide to observe the behavior of children in day care. A few days before you are to start data collection you go the center and sit quietly to the side of the room. When the children speak to you, you respond as little as possible. You are


a.

probably not very good with children.

b.

not going to get good data if you do not interact.

c.

attempting to be unobtrusive.

d.

trying to warm up the children so that they notice you.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied

137. By using the __________ method, researchers investigate whether observed behavior or a measured trait is related to another trait or characteristic.



a.

correlational

c.

experimental

b.

statistical

d.

survey

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-18 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
138. A correlation coefficient is a number


a.

that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.

b.

presenting the average relationship.

c.

representing a location on the normal curve.

d.

indicating the percentile of a score.

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-18&19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
139. You design a test of intelligence. Based on the theory that intelligence is related to academic performance, you use __________ to test the relationship between performance on your new test and grades in school.


a.

an experimental method

c.

the correlational method

b.

a test-retest method

d.

naturalistic observation

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
140. Which represents the strongest correlation?


a.

+.97

c.

+.09

b.

-.90

d.

-.99

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual NOT: BTC
141. Which of the following is most likely a correlation coefficient for a relationship between stress and health?


a.

-0.78

c.

0

b.

+1

d.

+0.98

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
142. Which of the following is reported as a negative correlation?


a.

studying and GPA

c.

studying and academic achievement

b.

stress and health

d.

intelligence and academic achievement

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
143. Which of the following is likely to be reported as a positive correlation?


a.

salary and years of education

c.

studying and GPA

b.

age and incidence of illness

d.

all of these

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

144. In correlational research, when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, it is a __________ correlation.



a.

positive

c.

invalid

b.

dubious

d.

negative

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: C
145. A correlation of -.90 between two sets of test scores indicates that people who earned high scores on the first test generally earned __________ scores on the second.


a.

high

c.

low

b.

average

d.

reliable

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
146. There is a good chance that we will find a __________ correlation between time spent watching TV and grades in school.


a.

perfect

c.

positive

b.

negative

d.

weak

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
147. Which of the following is the weakest negative correlation?


a.

0

c.

-.92

b.

-.34

d.

-.57

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-19 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
148. The best research method to investigate cause and effect relationships between variables is


a.

observation.

c.

an experiment.

b.

correlation.

d.

a case study.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
149. In an experiment, a group of participants that receives a dose of caffeine or a change in room temperature has received a __________.


a.

dependent variable

c.

random effect

b.

treatment

d.

consequence

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual

150. If you wanted to study the effects of caffeine on sleep, you could vary the consumption levels of caffeine. The administration of caffeine is



a.

the treatment.

c.

unethical.

b.

the control.

d.

the dependent variable.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
151. For which of the following variables could a cause effect relationship be found?


a.

alcohol consumption and aggression

c.

exercise and stress relief

b.

caffeine and hyperactivity

d.

all of these

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
152. In an experiment, the presence of a(n) __________ is manipulated by the researchers so that its effects may be determined.


a.

dependent variable

c.

placebo

b.

independent variable

d.

intervening

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
153. If you were to conduct an experiment on the effects of temperature on aggressive behavior, temperature would be the __________ variable.


a.

dependent

c.

hypothesis

b.

independent

d.

correlated

ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
154. The experimental group participants in an experiment receive


a.

the independent variable.

b.

the dependent variable.

c.

no treatment.

d.

the same treatment as the control participants.

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
155. The measured outcomes or results in an experiment are called


a.

independent variables.

c.

dependent variables.

b.

treatments.

d.

controls.

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual

156. In an experiment to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on aggression, aggressive behavior would be the



a.

treatment.

c.

control variable.

b.

independent variable.

d.

dependent variable.

ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
157. An experiment in which the independent variable is noise level and the dependent variable is resistance to distraction, the goal is to observe whether distractibility is a(n) __________ noise.


a.

cause of

b.

correlate of

c.

treatment for

d.

effect of

ANS: D DIF: 3 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
158. In an experimental design, participants in an experimental group receive ___________.


a.

no treatment

c.

the treatment

b.

conditions

d.

the answers

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
159. Participants who go through an experiment but who do not receive any treatment or manipulation are called the __________ group.


a.

self-selected

c.

control

b.

random

d.

treatment

ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
160. You volunteer to participate in a research experiment. You participate in a variety of test procedures and interviews. Later, however, you learn that another group of participants had an experimental treatment that you and members of your group did not have. This is because you


a.

were disqualified.

c.

were in the control group.

b.

failed earlier tests.

d.

were in the treatment group.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-20 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
161. Blind and double-blind procedures are one way to control for the effects of __________ in experimental research.


a.

expectations

c.

chance factors

b.

high costs

d.

confounding variables

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
162. Examples of a __________ would be the use of a “sugar pill” instead of real medication or tonic water instead of an alcoholic beverage. However, the individual must believe that he or she is experiencing the real thing.


a.

confederate

c.

treatment

b.

placebo

d.

bias

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
163. The purpose of the use of a placebo is to control for the __________ of research participants.


a.

suspicions

c.

fears

b.

expectations/beliefs

d.

cooperation

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
164. Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of, or __________, the treatment.


a.

blind to

c.

unconscious of

b.

indifferent to

d.

singled out for

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
165. Experimenters may believe that a certain kind of treatment is effective. Consequently, experimenter expectations can bias research outcomes. One way to control for experimenter and participant bias is to


a.

remind them of the importance of the research.

b.

debrief them.

c.

be sure they understand ethics.

d.

use the double-blind technique.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Applied
166. In a __________ study, neither the experimenter nor the participants know who has obtained the real treatment.


a.

single blind

c.

confounded

b.

double-blind

d.

debriefed

ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
167. The Food and Drug Administration requires __________ before it will allow the marketing and sale of new drugs.


a.

double-blind studies

c.

surveys

b.

psychological testing

d.

patient approval

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual

168. When Lang demonstrated that belief that one has consumed alcohol influenced aggression, he demonstrated that controlling for __________ does influence the outcome of research.



a.

alcohol

c.

aggression

b.

experimenter bias

d.

expectations

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
169. When you use procedures like placebos and double-blind conditions, you are attempting to set up __________ for factors that would make your experimental findings questionable.


a.

controls

c.

selections

b.

treatments

d.

cases

ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-21 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
170. Ethical standards in human research allow researchers to balance interests in acquiring new information with concern about


a.

applied science.

c.

public approval.

b.

unimpeded progress.

d.

dignity and human welfare.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
171. The purpose of a(n) __________ is to review research studies and help researchers consider the areas of potential harm in their proposed studies.


a.

ethics review committee

c.

global communications

b.

grant-writing techniques

d.

electronic methods

ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
172. __________ procedures allow participants to review the demands of a research project before they participate and give them an opportunity to choose not to participate.


a.

Ethical review

c.

Informed consent

b.

Debriefing

d.

Confidentiality

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
173. Psychologists and other researchers must protect and respect the privacy of research participants. This concern recognizes the requirement for


a.

informed consent.

c.

confidentiality.

b.

ethics.

d.

scientific progress at all costs.

ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

174. ____________ is a process of explaining the purposes and methods of the research after a study has been completed.



a.

Debriefing

c.

Reviewing

b.

Controlling

d.

Consenting

ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
175. The text makes an ethical critique of the Lang studies because the participants


a.

lacked informed consent.

b.

were not debriefed.

c.

electrically shocked a person with a heart condition.

d.

were deceived.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-22 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
176. When research cannot be carried out with human participants, researchers


a.

must abandon those issues.

c.

rely on theoretical models.

b.

often rely on volunteers.

d.

often use animals.

ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-23 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
177. Brain lesioning studies in rats have provided insights regarding


a.

abuses of animals in laboratories.

c.

regulation of eating and eating disorders.

b.

attachment in monkeys.

d.

social evolution.

ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-23 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual
178. The benefits of animal research


a.

are obvious to everyone.

b.

must justify the harm that might be done to an animal.

c.

can never justify the loss of the animal’s right to freedom.

d.

cannot be demonstrated.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-23 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
179. As an animal lover, you find it difficult to participate in the destruction of animals for research purposes. As a scientist, you


a.

fight the use of animal models by your colleagues.

b.

understand the value of animal research and promote ethical standards.

c.

know that these models are unjustified.

d.

realize that ethical animal models are never uncomfortable for the animal.

ANS: B DIF: 2 REF: 1-23 OBJ: 5

MSC: TYPE: C




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