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Chapter 1: Abnormal Behavior
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which statement about abnormal psychology is accurate?

a.

Abnormal psychology seeks to describe, explain, predict, and modify unusual behaviors.

b.

Although abnormal psychology has made several gains in the past 20 years, it is not yet a scientific field of study.

c.

The subject matter of abnormal psychology is restricted to extremely bizarre behavior.

d.

Most diagnoses of abnormality are based on two or three basic behavioral factors.

ANS: A REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Factual
2. Psychopathology, or abnormal behavior, results primarily from ____.


a.

genetic factors

b.

environmental factors

c.

sociocultural factors

d.

an interaction of many factors

ANS: D REF: Introduction OBJ: 1 MSC: Factual


3. Dr. Thompson collects information in order to describe and draw inferences about an individual's psychological disorder. Dr. Thompson is engaged in ____.

a.

therapy

b.

predicting dangerousness

c.

psychodiagnosis

d.

research

ANS: C REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
4. Dr. Kohn is a psychoanalyst, Dr. Edwards is a humanistic therapist, Dr. Peterson is a cognitive behavioral therapist, and Dr. James is a Gestalt therapist. Each of them would likely have a different ____ for a client's abnormality.


a.

time of onset

b.

explanation

c.

diagnosis

d.

prognosis

ANS: B REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
5. A psychologist says, “Juan's abnormal behavior is likely due to a combination of biology and inadequate interpersonal skills.” The psychologist is ____.


a.

predicting the future symptoms of Juan

b.

giving Juan a psychodiagnosis

c.

offering an explanation for Juan's problem

d.

describing how to control Juan's symptoms

ANS: C REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
6. Which statement regarding the prediction of abnormal behavior is accurate?


a.

Even experienced professionals tend to overpredict future violence.

b.

Psychologists are not interested in predicting clients' future behavior.

c.

Prediction is unrelated to understanding the cause of abnormality.

d.

Psychologists tend to underpredict future violence.

ANS: A REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Conceptual
7. One of Seung-Hui Cho's professors reported Cho's frightening behavior to many campus authorities. What reason did those authorities give her to explain why they could do nothing?


a.

Cho's therapist did not feel he posed a danger to others.

b.

There was no space in any of the local mental health facilities to house him.

c.

Cho did not make any overt threats against anyone.

d.

When compared with that of his peer group, Cho's behavior was not considered odd.

ANS: C REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
8. When psychologists talk about modifying abnormal behavior, they mean they are ____.


a.

attempting to understand the underlying cause of that behavior

b.

restricting the freedom of dangerous clients

c.

attempting to anticipate the future behaviors of clients

d.

using therapy to improve client behavior

ANS: D REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Factual
9. Which of the following defines therapy most accurately?


a.

A program of systematic intervention designed to alter behavior, emotion, or thought

b.

The scientific study of abnormal behavior.

c.

A system of observing abnormal behavior in an attempt to classify it

d.

The application of a theoretical model to explain the cause of abnormal behavior

ANS: A REF: 1 OBJ: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

MSC: Factual
10. A psychologist develops several activities for clients aimed at helping them become more self-disciplined and feel more confident about trying new behaviors. This example illustrates ____.


a.

how epidemiological work is done in the field

b.

how therapy may be seen as an attempt to modify behavior

c.

the function of providing an explanation for abnormal behavior

d.

the essential need for accurate psychodiagnosis

ANS: B REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied

11. Clinical psychologists usually have ____ degrees, unlike psychiatrists, who have ____ degrees.



a.

bachelor's (B.S.); medical (M.D.)

b.

medical (M.D.); doctorate (Ph.D.)

c.

doctorate (Ph.D. or Psy.D); medical (M.D.)

d.

master's (M.S.); doctorate (Ph.D.)

ANS: C REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Factual
12. Harold is a mental health professional who has a medical degree and prescribes antidepressants and antipsychotic medication for his patients. After graduating from medical school, he completed a three-year residency in his field. We can guess that Harold is a ____.


a.

social worker

b.

psychiatrist

c.

clinical psychologist

d.

psychoanalyst

ANS: B REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
13. Linda, Jayne, and Sheryl all are called “doctors.” All are mental health professionals. However, Linda has a Psy.D., Jayne has an M.D., and Sheryl has a D.S.W. We can predict that ____.


a.

Sheryl is a psychiatrist

b.

Linda is a social worker

c.

Linda is a clinical psychologist

d.

Jayne is a clinical psychologist

ANS: C REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied
14. Psychiatrists must have an M.D.; clinical psychologists must have a Ph.D. or Psy.D. Psychoanalysts must have ____.


a.

a master's (M.S.) degree

b.

an M.D

c.

only a bachelor's (B.S.) degree

d.

their own intensive personal analysis from an experienced analyst

ANS: D REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Factual
15. Johanna is an M.D. who received intensive training in the ideas of Sigmund Freud. She also went through her own psychoanalysis as part of this training. We can guess that Johanna is a ____.


a.

psychoanalyst

b.

marriage and family counselor

c.

psychiatric social worker

d.

behaviorally oriented counseling psychologist

ANS: A REF: The Concerns of Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 1 MSC: Applied

16. Isabel tells Dr. Paz that the spirits she sees of her dead grandparents are causing her a great deal of anxiety, although they have motivated her to seek her medical degree. Isabel lives in Brazil. If Dr. Paz diagnoses her as having a psychological disorder, he will likely attribute it to which criterion?



a.

deviance

b.

distress

c.

dangerousness

d.

dysfunction

ANS: B REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
17. One strength in using the deviance criterion is that it ____.


a.

uses an objective method of defining abnormal behavior

b.

stresses the attainment of realistic goals

c.

examines how the individual views his or her own behavior

d.

accounts for the complexity of behavior observed in people from different cultures

ANS: A REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Conceptual
18. A psychologist defined mental retardation solely on the basis of how far from “normal” an individual's IQ score is. The criterion used is ____.


a.

abnormality

b.

cultural relativism

c.

cultural universality

d.

deviance

ANS: D REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Conceptual
19. Anita went to the mall. Suddenly she looked around and had no idea where she was, whether it was day or night, or even what day it was. Anita was experiencing ____.


a.

a hallucination

b.

a delusion

c.

disorientation

d.

psychosis

ANS: C REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
20. Suree is studying to be a clinical psychologist from an accredited program. She will learn that, with respect to bias in diagnosing clients, ____.


a.

even the most enlightened and well-intended mental health professionals may engage in race, gender, and social class bias

b.

psychologists are less likely than other mental health professionals to overpathologize clients on the basis of race, gender, or social class

c.

clinical psychologists receive better training than other mental health professionals for recognizing their tendency to hold prejudicial attitudes toward clients

d.

mental health professionals are more likely to hold prejudicial attitudes and biases against males than against females

ANS: A REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Applied
21. “You must understand the values and expectations of the society in which behavior occurs before you decide that abnormality exists.” This quote best reflects which view of abnormality?


a.

traditional

b.

cultural relativism

c.

epidemiological

d.

cultural universality

ANS: B REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Conceptual
22. The concept of ____ assumes that certain mental disorders exist across cultures; ____ suggests that mental disorders may manifest differently and certain disorders may only be found in some cultures.


a.

cultural universality; cultural relativism

b.

cultural relativism; cultural universality

c.

cultural relativism; cultural constellation

d.

cultural diversity; cultural universality

ANS: A REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Conceptual
23. The most fruitful approach to using multicultural criteria is to rely on ____.


a.

neither cultural universality nor cultural relativism

b.

the cultural relativism approach

c.

the cultural universality approach

d.

some combination of cultural relativism and cultural universality

ANS: D REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Factual
24. Early psychological research, such as that by Emil Kraepelin, supported which assumption about abnormality?


a.

cultural relativism

b.

cultural universality

c.

statistical norms

d.

psychopathological

ANS: B REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Factual
25. Juanita visits a mental health center. She complains that her fatigue, anxiety, and inability to sleep keep her from enjoying life. If her symptoms are considered a form of abnormal behavior, it is because she is showing ____.


a.

delusions and hallucinations

b.

dysfunction

c.

disorientation

d.

deviation from the norm

ANS: B REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied

26. Headache is to ____ as delusions are to ____.



a.

dysfunction; deviance

b.

discomfort; deviance

c.

deviance; dysfunction

d.

discomfort; dysfunction

ANS: B REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Factual
27. Sensory misperceptions, which may include hearing voices others do not hear or seeing things other do not see, are called ____.


a.

dysfunctions

b.

disorientations

c.

delusions

d.

hallucinations

ANS: D REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Factual
28. Mel has the mistaken belief that his father has stolen his identity and that his mother is trying to poison him. Mel's mistaken beliefs illustrate ____.


a.

delusions

b.

disorientation

c.

underachievement

d.

hallucinations

ANS: A REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
29. Jack carries on conversations with creatures only he can see in a language that no one else can understand. Jack says the creatures instruct him to crush insects that only Jack can see. Jack is experiencing ____.


a.

delusions

b.

discomfort

c.

hallucinations

d.

disorientation

ANS: C REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
30. During a diagnostic interview, a psychiatrist asks the client if he or she knows what day it is, what his or her name is, and where he or she is. These questions are designed to assess ____.


a.

disorientation

b.

discomfort

c.

subjective distress

d.

dysfunction

ANS: A REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied

31. One way to assess dysfunction is in terms of the discrepancy between ____.



a.

thoughts and feelings

b.

expectations and attitudes

c.

cultural norms and actual behavior

d.

personal potential and actual performance

ANS: D REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Factual
32. Teresa, normally an energetic mother of three small children, is suddenly unable to go shopping, prepare meals, or even dress her children. Teresa's behavior illustrates the practical definition of abnormality called ____.


a.

disorientation

b.

discomfort

c.

dysfunction

d.

deviance

ANS: C REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
33. According to Thomas Szasz, ____.


a.

mental illness is a fictional creation by society used to control and change people

b.

the causes for most mental disorders will ultimately be found in brain pathology

c.

individuals who are suffering from mental illnesses have biological diseases

d.

medication is far superior to psychotherapy in reducing the suffering of individuals with mental disorders

ANS: A REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Factual
34. A psychologist considers biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural dimensions when assessing behavior. This psychologist is using which model?


a.

psychogenic

b.

cultural universality

c.

multipath

d.

statistical deviance

ANS: C REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Conceptual
35. The American Psychiatric Association has published a manual that is the most widely used classification system of psychological disorders. It is called the ____.


a.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)

b.

Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)

c.

Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM)

d.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

ANS: D REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Factual

36. Kunti, a Black slave who works on a Southern plantation in the 18th century, tries to escape to freedom. A psychological diagnosis at that time would likely be that Kunti ____.



a.

has a normal desire to be free

b.

suffers from drapetomania

c.

suffers from an anxiety disorder

d.

is expressing a statistical anomaly

ANS: B REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Applied
37. Thomas Szasz believes that ____.


a.

unusual belief systems are not necessarily wrong

b.

abnormal behavior reflects an illness

c.

psychologists are better trained than other professionals to diagnose abnormality

d.

people who have problems of living are suffering from mental illness

ANS: A REF: Abnormal Behavior in Context: Sociopolitical and Cultural Limitations

OBJ: 3 MSC: Factual
38. Dr. Karlin specializes in working with clients whose emotional problems interfere with their ability to work effectively or to engage in meaningful relationships. She focuses on which criterion of abnormality?


a.

distress

b.

deviance

c.

dangerousness

d.

dysfunction

ANS: D REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Applied
39. "A behavior pattern in an individual that is associated with distress or disability, and is not merely an expectable response to common stressors or losses" would be considered consistent with the definition of abnormal behavior of ____.


a.

humanistic psychologists

b.

the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

c.

cultural relativists

d.

the National Institute of Mental Health

ANS: B REF: Determining Abnormality OBJ: 2

MSC: Factual
40. Dr. Henry conducted an epidemiological study to assess the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia in the United States. Dr. Henry was assessing ____.


a.

the percentage of people in the United States who suffer from schizophrenia

b.

the number of people in the United States who have had schizophrenia within a certain period of time

c.

the total proportion of people in the United States who have ever suffered from schizophrenia

d.

the age of onset for people in the United States who have schizophrenia

ANS: C REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Conceptual
41. A researcher who investigates the onset or occurrence of a psychological disorder over specific periods of time is studying the ____ of the disorder.


a.

incidence

b.

prevalence

c.

lifetime prevalence

d.

criteria

ANS: A REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
42. Psychiatric epidemiology ____ our understanding of the factors that contribute to the occurrence of specific mental disorders.


a.

restricts

b.

does not affect

c.

confuses

d.

improves

ANS: D REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Conceptual
43. Which statement about psychiatric disorder in the United States is accurate?


a.

Depression and anxiety are more common in men than in women.

b.

Compared to adults, a larger percentage of children have anxiety disorders.

c.

25 percent of adults suffer from a diagnosable mental health disorder in a given year.

d.

Phobias are more common in the elderly than in the young.

ANS: C REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
44. Research shows that in the United States, adolescents are more likely than adults to have problems with ____.


a.

drug abuse

b.

schizophrenia

c.

impulse control

d.

personality disorder

ANS: A REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
45. One finding of the Merikangas et al. (2010) epidemiological study is that ____.


a.

males and females tend to differ in the kinds of disorders they experience

b.

adolescents have a lower rate of mood disorders than adults

c.

almost 50 percent of adolescents meet criteria for at least one psychological disorder

d.

people living in rural areas have a much higher incidence of mental disorders than do people living in urban areas

ANS: C REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
46. According to the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (2003), ____.


a.

the rate of mental disorder among adolescents is on the decrease

b.

the more education a person has, the more likely he/she is to have a mental disorder

c.

there is no longer a "stigma" about mental illness

d.

two-thirds of all people suffering from mental disorders are not receiving or seeking mental health services

ANS: D REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
47. Researchers in the United States have found which one of the following statements to be TRUE?


a.

The rate of mental disorder in the population has been steadily decreasing over the past 50 years.

b.

Adolescents and adults are equally likely to suffer from anxiety disorders.

c.

Women are more likely than men to suffer from mental disorders.

d.

Adolescents are more likely than adults to suffer from mental disorders.

ANS: D REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
48. According to Merikangas et al. (2010), what percent of adults suffer from serious psychological disorders in a given year?


a.

5 percent

b.

8 percent

c.

25 percent

d.

32 percent

ANS: C REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
49. Which of the following mental disorders is the most common in the United States?


a.

schizophrenia

b.

anxiety

c.

mood

d.

substance abuse

ANS: B REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual
50. Which statement about the burden of mental disorders is accurate?


a.

Incidence is associated with negative attitudes about mental illness.

b.

“Mental health problems” that do not meet criteria for a mental disorder could be as equally debilitating as a diagnosable mental health disorders if treated inadequately.

c.

Half of the people who suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder are neither seeking nor receiving mental health services.

d.

Spending on mental health services is increasing.

ANS: B REF: The Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders

OBJ: 4 MSC: Factual

51. Jason says, “Abnormal behavior is a function of the context in which the behavior occurs and what the observer thinks is abnormal.” Jason's remark ____.



a.

contradicts the myth that there is a sharp distinction between mentally healthy and mentally disturbed

b.

supports the myth that mentally disturbed people can use willpower to recover

c.

supports the myth that mental illness runs in families

d.

contradicts the myth that mentally disturbed people can cure themselves

ANS: A REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Applied
52. Which of the following statements regarding the causes of mental disorders is accurate?


a.

In most disorders, heredity and the environment play almost equal roles.

b.

In most disorders, environmental factors have little influence; heredity is the predominant cause.

c.

Heredity has little influence on disorders such as schizophrenia and mental retardation.

d.

In some disorders, heredity plays a causal role, but in all disorders, the environment is extremely important.

ANS: D REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Conceptual
53. At one time, Abraham Lincoln, William James, news anchor Mike Wallace, and author J.K. Rowling each suffered from a mental disorder. Consequently, their examples contradict which of the following myths?


a.

Mentally disordered people must have had bad parents.

b.

People can never fully recover from mental disorders.

c.

Mentally disturbed people must have inherited their disorders.

d.

Mentally disordered people only need to exercise willpower to recover.

ANS: B REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Conceptual
54. Eli refuses to let his daughter marry Avi because Avi's brother suffered from depression and committed suicide. Eli believes that any children his daughter and Avi would bear would be suicidal. Eli believes which myth about mental illness?


a.

Mental disorders are inherited.

b.

We can easily identify people with mental disorders.

c.

People with mental disorders cannot be cured.

d.

People with mental disorders are dangerous.

ANS: A REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Applied
55. Many psychological problems stem from situations that are not under an individual's control. This fact counters the myth that ____.


a.

mental illness is incurable

b.

mental patients are usually dangerous

c.

most mental disorders are caused by inherited biological defects

d.

mental illness is caused by weak personal willpower

ANS: D REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Factual
56. Morgan is a highly respected teacher and poet whose works have been published in three languages. He also suffers from bipolar disorder and has never been successfully treated. This case ____.


a.

supports the claim that mental disorders are usually the result of bad parenting and past traumatic experiences

b.

contradicts the claim that people with mental disorders cannot contribute until they are cured

c.

contradicts the claim that mentally disturbed people are recognizable

d.

supports the idea that mentally disturbed people can never function normally or hold down jobs

ANS: B REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Applied
57. Dr. Chu reports, “Mental patients are no more dangerous than other people.” What does research say about the doctor's statement?


a.

No such research has been done.

b.

Research shows that patients are considerably more dangerous than others in the population.

c.

Research shows that individuals with dual diagnosis are slightly more dangerous than other patients.

d.

Research shows that mental patients are actually less dangerous than are others in the population.

ANS: C REF: Stereotypes about the Mentally Disturbed

OBJ: 5 MSC: Applied
58. Throughout history, most popular ideas about abnormal behavior have been ____.


a.

rooted in the beliefs of a given time period and society

b.

based on religious dogma of the day

c.

rooted in supernatural explanations

d.

based on scientific evidence

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Conceptual
59. Professor Martin, a historian who studies ancient cultures, would likely suggest that prehistoric societies attributed mental illness to all of the following EXCEPT ____.


a.

demonic possession

b.

sorcery

c.

spirits of angry ancestors

d.

biological disequilibrium

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Applied

60. In some non-Western societies today, headaches, depression, and seizures are all believed to be caused by offended ancestral spirits or by evil forces that possess the sufferer. This type of explanation is called ____.



a.

naturalism

b.

demonology

c.

trephining

d.

exorcism

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Conceptual
61. Trephining refers to the process of ____.


a.

putting leaches on the body to remove bad blood

b.

making a person chant and pray to drive out evil spirits

c.

changing one's diet to improve one's physical and mental health

d.

boring a hole in the skull to let demons escape

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
62. During what period of time would a behavior disorder most likely be treated with the surgical method called trephining?


a.

The Stone Age

b.

Biblical times

c.

The Golden Age of Greece

d.

The 19th and 20th centuries

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
63. Exorcism involves ____.


a.

increasing one's activity level so that, by becoming fit, a person's body can recover from a physical or mental illness

b.

chipping a hole in the skull of a person believed to be possessed by demons

c.

praying and chanting over or flogging and starving a person to cast evil spirits out of the body

d.

examining the brains of people who have severe mental disorders

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
64. The first naturalistic explanation of abnormal behavior can be traced to ____.


a.

early twentieth century psychosurgery

b.

Philippe Pinel in eighteenth-century Paris

c.

Hippocrates in ancient Greece

d.

Galen in ancient Rome

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual

65. Suppose an archaeologist unearthed an ancient Greek document that contained instructions for the treatment of mental disorders such as melancholia and mania. What would the writing probably say?



a.

“Hypnotize the person and encourage the person to express his or her negative emotions.”

b.

“Have the family treat the person with rest, good diet, and moderate exercise.”

c.

“Treat the person as you would a witch.”

d.

“Take a sharp stone and cut a hole in the person's skull to let out the evil demons.”

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Conceptual
66. “Your sadness is what I call melancholia. It is a problem with your brain, the cure for which is abstinence from sex, rest, and, if necessary, the removal of some of your bad blood.” During what era would this advice most likely have been given?


a.

sixteenth-century Paris, France

b.

prehistoric times

c.

ancient Greece

d.

the Dark Ages

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Applied
67. He practiced in Rome and related mental illness to the brain and central nervous system. His greatest contribution may have been compiling all medical knowledge from Hippocrates' time to his own. Who was he?


a.

Pinel

b.

Mesmer

c.

Weyer

d.

Galen

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
68. During the Middle Ages, mental illness was ____.


a.

based on a disease model

b.

handled with care and humane treatment

c.

based on scientific principles

d.

seen as a manifestation of God's will

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
69. The early Christian Church believed that ____.


a.

demons could be released through the cathartic method

b.

many behaviors we call mental disorders were the result of supernatural forces

c.

science was the most effective way to understand abnormal human behavior

d.

abnormal behavior was primarily the result of biological abnormality

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual

70. Imagine that half the clerical employees in one building of a school begin to have headaches, feel agitated, scratch themselves furiously, feel numbness in their fingers, and faint. There is no biological explanation. This incident would most likely be seen by psychologists as an example of ____.



a.

mass madness

b.

exorcism

c.

hypnotic susceptibility

d.

mesmerism

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Applied
71. Imagine that you could use a time machine to travel back to the thirteenth century. You see groups of people in a village jumping, dancing, and having convulsions in the town square. All over Europe, you find similar groups of raving people. You would have witnessed the ____.


a.

phenomenon called trephining

b.

mass madness called St. Vitus's Dance

c.

phenomenon called lycanthropy

d.

mass madness called mesmerism

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Applied
72. What was the Malleus Maleficarum?


a.

a compilation of all medical knowledge regarding abnormal behavior from the Greeks and Romans

b.

a description of how to treat madness in the Dark Ages

c.

a guide to building hospitals for the mentally ill that were more humane

d.

a guidebook for identifying and exterminating witches

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
73. Which statement below concerning witchcraft is accurate?


a.

At first, the church made no distinctions between types of demonic possession.

b.

Witchcraft became a way of explaining peculiar behavior when the church was under attack.

c.

The church tried to stop people from accusing deviant people of being witches.

d.

The treatment for witchcraft typically involved prayers, gentle persuasion, and sympathy.

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
74. Historians of the witchcraft age concluded that ____.


a.

the mentally ill were especially prone to being perceived as witches

b.

few people were ever accused of being witches and almost none were killed

c.

many witches were actually mentally retarded, not mentally disordered

d.

almost all witches were mentally disordered

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual

75. Humanism is the ____.



a.

scientific study of behavior

b.

philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and individual uniqueness

c.

biological theory of abnormal behavior first used by the ancient Greeks

d.

name the Catholic Church gave to the practice of identifying and executing individuals they believed were witches

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
76. The humanistic movement of the Renaissance ____.


a.

emphasized the value of the cathartic method

b.

presented the first biogenic theory of abnormal behavior in recorded history

c.

challenged the notion of demonic possession

d.

led directly to deinstitutionalization of mentally disordered individuals

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
77. “I reject the idea of witchcraft. Disturbed people are sick people who deserve our sympathy, not torture and death.” Who would have been most likely to say these words?


a.

Pope Innocent VIII

b.

Ivan Pavlov

c.

John B. Watson

d.

Johann Weyer

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
78. Who ordered the chains to be removed from inmates at a mental asylum and is considered a founder of the moral treatment movement?


a.

Clifford Beers

b.

Johann Weyer

c.

Philippe Pinel

d.

Dorothea Dix

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
79. “Although I lived in a different country than Philippe Pinel, I also worked to establish moral treatment for mental patients.” Who might have said this?


a.

William Tuke

b.

Galen

c.

Jean-Martin Charcot

d.

Friedrich Anton Mesmer

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
80. In treating the mentally disturbed, moral therapists were likely to make use of which of the following?


a.

antipsychotic medications

b.

controls such as chains, starvation, restraints, and hot baths

c.

mesmerism

d.

prayer, work, kindness, and talking out problems

ANS: D REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Factual
81. Imagine that we travel back in time and meet two Americans. The first says, “I am sometimes called the father of U.S. psychiatry. I used bloodletting to treat my mental patients, but I insisted they be treated with respect.” The second says, “Although I was only a schoolteacher, when I saw the deplorable conditions under which mental patients were living, I devoted my life to establishing suitable mental hospitals.” The first person was ____; the second was ____.


a.

Benjamin Rush; Dorothea Dix

b.

William Tuke; Clifford Beers

c.

Clifford Beers; Dorothea Dix

d.

Benjamin Rush; Friedrich Anton Mesmer

ANS: A REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Applied
82. A history book states, “Benjamin Rush introduced humane policies into American mental hospitals, but it took Dorothea Dix to make significant positive reforms in mental hospital care. After her work, inhumane treatment was eliminated in the United States.” What, if anything, is incorrect in this statement?


a.

No portion of the statement is incorrect.

b.

It is incorrect to say that Dix made significant positive reforms.

c.

It is incorrect to say that inhumane treatment was eliminated by Dix.

d.

It is incorrect to say that Rush introduced humane policies.

ANS: C REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Conceptual
83. Frenchman Philippe Pinel and American Benjamin Rush were both concerned with ____.


a.

the development of private “madhouses” because they were highly profitable

b.

the moral treatment of patients in hospitals

c.

helping patients gain easy access to medications

d.

instituting the use of shamans in the modern treatment of mentally disturbed individuals in an attempt to be culturally sensitive

ANS: B REF: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: 6 MSC: Conceptual
84. Dr. Lawrence believes that mental illness has an emotional basis. We can therefore conclude that Dr. Lawrence holds ____ view of mental illness.


a.

an organic

b.

a biological

c.

a psychological

d.

an emotional

ANS: C REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Applied
85. Which statement would be consistent with the ideas of Emil Kraepelin?


a.

Whenever behavior prevents people from performing the tasks they are expected to perform, it is a sign of abnormality.

b.

Abnormality is a deviation from ideal personality traits such as competence, self-actualization, and creativity.

c.

Every culture has its own unique set of symptoms and disorders.

d.

All mental disorders can be attributed to one of four organic causes.

ANS: D REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Conceptual
86. Dr. Juarez discovers that certain symptoms of behavior reliably occur in clusters. Her discovery would be seen as ____.


a.

evidence of a syndrome

b.

support for a psychological viewpoint

c.

an illustration of epidemiology

d.

support for a biological viewpoint

ANS: A REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Applied
87. According to Kraepelin, mental disorders can be seen in terms of symptom clusters that have their own cause, course, and outcome, which are considered ____ in origin.


a.

sociocultural

b.

biological

c.

psychological

d.

culturally universal

ANS: B REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Factual
88. A psychologist says, “There are certain emotional disorders for which we can find no evidence of brain pathology.” This psychologist's statement reflects a(n) ____ viewpoint.


a.

organic

b.

biogenic

c.

humanistic

d.

psychological

ANS: D REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Conceptual
89. Mesmer's lasting contribution to psychology is his ____.


a.

research showing the relationship between syphilis and the mental deterioration seen in general paresis

b.

development of a textbook for psychiatry that described the major disorders

c.

demonstration that psychological factors, such as the power of suggestion, can be highly therapeutic

d.

demonstration that the masses can fall for a false set of beliefs

ANS: C REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Factual
90. Imagine that you are in Paris in 1775. People tell you their physical and mental health is remarkably improved when they experience a strange sleeplike trance. Later you hear that the man who performed these remarkable cures was investigated and forced to leave Paris. What forerunner of hypnosis were the people of Paris talking about?


a.

catharsis

b.

mesmerism

c.

exorcism

d.

trephining

ANS: B REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Applied
91. Dr. Johns researched mental disorders using laboratory methods. He stressed the importance of directly observable behaviors and the conditions or stimuli that evoked, reinforced, or extinguished them. Dr. Johns adhered to which early viewpoint of mental illness?


a.

humanism

b.

behaviorism

c.

psychoanalysis

d.

mesmerism

ANS: B REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Applied
92. When working with one of his female patients, Josef Breuer discovered that she was able to resolve many of her symptoms by remembering and reliving the emotional aspects of previously forgotten memories. This therapeutic use of verbal expression is referred to as the ____ method.


a.

association

b.

memory

c.

hypnotic

d.

cathartic

ANS: D REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Factual
93. Catharsis assumes that ____.


a.

abnormal behavior is affected primarily by cultural norms.

b.

reliving forgotten emotions reduces suffering

c.

astrology and planetary movements affect human emotions

d.

drug treatment, coupled with social skills training, improves mental functioning

ANS: B REF: Causes: Early Viewpoints OBJ: 7

MSC: Conceptual
94. The advent of psychotropic drugs in the 1950s was considered a major revolution in the treatment of mental disorders for all of the following reasons except that ____.


a.

the medications rapidly and dramatically reduced patients' symptoms

b.

patients were able to focus their attention on their therapy

c.

use of medications revised the strong belief in the psychological basis of mental illness

d.

stays in mental hospitals were shortened and became more cost-effective

ANS: C REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Conceptual
95. Which statement concerning prescription privileges for psychologists is most likely to come from a physician, rather than from a psychologist?


a.

Granting such privileges could endanger the public.

b.

Pharmacology interventions may supplant psychological ones.

c.

It is appropriate to allow psychologists to prescribe medications.

d.

Prescription privileges would increase the length of time required to complete one's education.

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Conceptual
96. ____ is the industrialization of health care through which large organizations determine what type and duration of treatment clients can have.


a.

Managed health care

b.

Multicultural psychology

c.

Moral therapy

d.

The drug revolution

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Factual
97. Critics of empirically based treatments express concern that the move to evidence-based therapy ____.


a.

is biased in favor of psychodynamic treatment.

b.

is too broad-based with respect to identifying psychological disorders

c.

provides too many treatment options

d.

does not recognize clinical intuition

ANS: D REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Factual
98. A psychologist says, “Because they have higher birthrates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States are already a numerical majority. This increase in diversity has led to the field called multicultural psychology, which is interested in increasing the cultural sensitivity of mental health professionals.” What portion of this statement is incorrect?


a.

It is incorrect to say that multicultural psychology is interested in increasing cultural sensitivity.

b.

It is incorrect to say that racial minorities have higher birthrates.

c.

It is incorrect to say that minorities are currently the majority.

d.

It is incorrect to say that diversity has led to multicultural psychology.

ANS: C REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Applied
99. Social conditioning, sociopolitical influences, and bias in diagnosis are factors that help explain ____.


a.

ethnic and gender differences in mental health

b.

the reason managed health care developed

c.

the success of hypnosis and catharsis in changing an individual's behavior

d.

the increase in the number of mental health professionals in the United States

ANS: A REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Conceptual

100. A person who subscribes to the multipath model of mental illness would probably agree that ____.



a.

behaviorism was much more influential in the treatment of mental disorders than drug treatment or psychoanalysis

b.

biological factors are only a part of the picture for explaining and treating mental disorders

c.

biological factors are the most important causes of most mental disorders

d.

research has little place in contemporary abnormal psychology

ANS: B REF: Contemporary Trends in Abnormal Psychology

OBJ: 8 MSC: Conceptual
ESSAY
1. List four major means used to judge abnormal behavior. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each criterion.

ANS:
Distress: Distress can manifest itself in physical illnesses, such as asthma and hypertension, as well as in physical symptoms, such as fatigue and nausea, and in extreme or prolonged emotional reactions, such as anxiety and depression. Intense, exaggerated, and prolonged distress can interfere with a person's capacity to function effectively and can cause discomfort for the individual and for others around that individual. However, distress is a common, normal, and even healthy response to many situations and, by itself, is not sufficient to determine abnormality.


Deviance: Deviance is related to using a statistical average and considers behavior in terms of that which occurs least frequently, thus equating commonplace with healthy. Deviance can be interpreted subjectively and is affected by social norms, which are ever-changing, although some behaviors (e.g., disorientation, hallucinations, delusions) are typically considered abnormal. This criterion fails to look at the various types of rare behavior and whether all rare behavior is in need of treatment or change. Exceptional creativity is not what most people consider abnormal behavior. Furthermore, so many people are likely to be deviant that such a definition would label large portions of the population abnormal.
Dysfunction: Emotional problems sometimes interfere with the performance of people's every day roles (student, teacher, friend, employee, etc.). Another way to consider abnormality is when an individual's performance is below that individual's potential. However, it is difficult to assess potential accurately and to determine whether a person is performing at his or her peak. Additionally, cultures have expectations for individuals in society; those who fall well short of expected performance of roles might be seen as dysfunctional.
Dangerousness: For over thirty years (since Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, in 1976), predicting a client's dangerousness to self and others has been a critical element of diagnosing abnormality. Unfortunately, predicting dangerousness is difficult and usually inaccurate, there are no clear-cut criteria correlated with it (although previous violent behavior is a strong risk factor), mental health professionals tend to overpredict dangerousness (which can result in unwarranted deprivation of an individual's rights), and in reality, it is a statistical rarity.



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