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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The purpose of this project is to identify the effect that surface modifications have on the urban heat island phenomenon and related ozone problem in the metropolitan area of Chicago, IL. The basic hypothesis is that urban, summertime temperatures can be significantly lowered by increasing the vegetative landscape cover and enhancing the solar reflectivity of paved and roofed surfaces within an urban area. It is proposed that in addition to a decrease in temperature, the modification of an urban surface to include more vegetative cover and lighter, lower albedo surfaces will also reduce energy consumption, ozone exceedances, and detrimental environmental and human health effects associated with high levels of ozone. The analysis is divided into three main parts. The first section of this report introduces the causes of ground level ozone and its effects in urban areas. It explains both the chemistry and transport associated with ozone exceedances. The second section is a compilation of the most viable mitigation strategies of urban heat islands increasing vegetative cover and increasing proportions of light to dark surfaces. The effects, implementation strategies, and specific strengths and weaknesses associated with each approach are described, including a comparison of asphalt and concrete pavements systems using a life cycle analysis approach. The final section provides a case study of the Chicago area. This study entailed an examination of the land use, development of an urban fabric analysis in which total vegetative, paved, and roofed surfaces are investigated and quantified, and discussion on the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies in the Chicago area. In general, the associated findings of my research are located within this final section.


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1.2 OBJECTIVES
The overall goal of this project is to investigate the relationship between the urban heat island phenomenon, the ozone problem, and the effect of urban surface cover and color modifications in the metropolitan area of Chicago, IL. The specific objectives of this work are to Review the detrimental effects of the urban heat island phenomenon, particularly as a causative factor in promoting exceedances of air quality ozone standards, and identify mitigation alternatives that may reduce the effects of the urban heat island. Illustrate the differences in temperature between the urbanized center of Chicago and the surrounding areas in order to identify the heat island in the Chicago region. Examine the spatial distribution of ozone levels in the Chicago area and consider probable sources. Evaluate of the relationship between temperature and ozone. Develop a method to analyze the urban fabric of the Chicago area from aerial photographs, thus allowing the determination of the proportion of vegetative, roofed, and paved surfaces as a function of land use. Evaluate of the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies as applied to the Chicago area, with special focus on vegetation and paving materials.


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