Learning Activity 1 (p. 237)


Learning Activity 6.23 (p. 276)



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Learning Activity 6.23 (p. 276)

1 Construct a table that summarises the main distinguishing features of the sensory memory, short-term working memory and LTM systems.



Name of memory system


Main function(s)


Type of information


Storage duration


Storage capacity


Organisation of stored information

Level of processing


Relationship to other systems


Other distinctive features


sensory memory

stores all new information that may enter memory from the external environment

original (raw) sensory form

very brief—duration may differ for each sensory register

vast

no

none

entry point for all new information to memory

transfers to STM or working memory (and sometimes directly to LTM according to Atkinson–Shiffrin model)

attention is required for transfer and encoding


no encoding

a different sensory register for each sense, each with own features, e.g. storage duration

may act as a filtering system for incoming sensory information


iconic memory

visual sensory memory that stores, new incoming visual information

visual sensory data detected by eyes

0.2–0.4 seconds

vast

no

none (i.e. they are raw data)

as above

stored information is available just long enough to attend to and select what has been seen for further processing

echoic memory

auditory sensory memory that stores, new incoming auditory information

auditory sensory data detected by the ears

3–4 seconds

vast

no

none (i.e. they are raw data)

as above

available just long enough to attend to and select what has been seen for further processing

STM or working memory

limited, temporary store of information for use in everyday activities

encoded

up to about 18 seconds

7 ± 2 items

chunking can organise

maintenance rehearsal for shallow processing and elaborative rehearsal for deep processing

information is transferred from sensory memory or retrieved from LTM for use in everyday activities

active part of memory

where information is ‘worked’ upon for everyday function

conscious awareness of all information

rehearsal extends duration;

chunking extends capacity


phonological loop

verbal working memory for temporary store of verbal, speech-like information, e.g. sounds of words (phonemes)

sound-based (phonological)

about 2 seconds

limited

N/A

N/A

controlled by central executive

capacity is in dependent of visuo-spatial sketchpad



LTM

maintenance rehearsal is vital for retention



visuo-spatial scratchpad

visual working memory for temporary store of visual and spatial information

visual and spatial information

brief

limited

N/A

N/A

controlled by central executive

capacity is in dependent of phonological loop






central executive

controls attention

integrates information

from other components and from

LTM


coordinates flow of information between working memory and LTM

manipulates information in other components

limited

limited

N/A

N/A

coordinates activities of working memory and its components as well as flow of information from them and LTM


most important and most complex component

‘working’ component of working memory

Involved in everything we think, feel and do in NWC


episodic buffer

enables working memory and components to connect to and interact with LTM

mental workbench to manipulate information for cognitive activities



information in any form, e.g. can combine visual information and sounds

brief—a temporary working or editing space

about 4 chunks

N/A

N/A

controlled by central executive

directly linked to LTM but has own storage space and processes




Added by Baddeley (2000) to explain relationship between LTM and working memory

LTM

relatively permanent memory system for storing vast amounts of information for a long period of time

depends on type

possibly indefinitely, relatively permanent

unlimited

highly organised by meaning and association to assist storage and retrieval, e.g. semantic (meaningful) networks

deep level

receives new incoming information from STM or working memory if properly encoded (e.g. by elab. rehearsal)

information retrieved from LTM to STM or working memory for conscious awareness and use



different LTM types for different information

explicit and implicit LTMs



procedural memory

LTM of previously learned actions and skills

knowing ‘how’

relatively permanent

vast

as above

as above

as above

implicit memory process, i.e. retrieved without conscious awareness and expressed through performance

declarative memory

LTM for specific facts and events that can be explicitly stated

‘knowing that’

relatively permanent

vast

as above

as above

as above

Two sub-types - episodic and semantic

explicit memory process i.e. retrieved with conscious awareness and can be stated



semantic memory

LTM for facts and knowledge about the world

factual information not dependent on links to time or place

relatively permanent

vast

as above

as above

as above

declarative LTM sub-type

explicit memory



episodic memory

LTM for personally experienced events

like autobiographical information and usually including time, place and state details

relatively permanent

vast

as above

as above

as above

declarative LTM sub-type

explicit memory



2 Create a flow chart to show the flow of a specific example of incoming sensory information as it moves through a model of memory that integrates the Atkinson–Shiffrin model, the Baddeley (2000) model and the Craik and Lockhart framework. The flow chart should include a representation of maintenance and elaborative rehearsal and the information must be shown as being both stored and then retrieved from LTM for use.

The focus should be on accurately, clearly and succinctly summarising and representing key memory concepts and processes.



Learning Activity 6.24 (p. 277)

Answers on page 755.



© Macmillan Education Australia 2013



VCE Psychology Units 3 & 4

ISBN 978 1 4202 3217 2 │ Digital teacher: 978 1 4202 3242 4






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