Impression Management


Strategy 13: Give (or ask for) reasons



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Strategy 13: Give (or ask for) reasons - another way to involve the H in the cooperative activity is to bring about arguments that led to the conclusion and present it in a way assuming cooperation


  1. Fulfill H´s want for some X



Strategy 15: Give gift to H (goods, sympathy, understanding, cooperation) – even a mention of H´s possible needs and a symbolical attending to them may create a feeling of satisfying the positive-face wants and so anticipating for example the H´s desire to learn more information as in Do not hesitate to call me any time and at the same time offering help in that respect implies cooperation although it is actually for the S´s benefit.

4.1.2 Negative politeness strategies

Negative politeness is meant to redress the imposition caused by potentially threatening the H´s freedom of action. Minimizing the imposition through various distancing strategies is what is meant by paying respect in western society (Brown and Levinson, 1987: 129-211).





      1. Be direct


Strategy 1: Be conventionally indirect – this strategy operates with the illocutionary force of indirect speech acts (e.g. using questions as requests), which has, however, through typical structures become so conventionalized that it can be unambiguously accepted as on record.



      1. Don´t presume/assume – this sub-rule warns against believing that anything connected with the FTA is believed or wanted by the H


Strategy 2: Question, hedge - as the name suggests, this strategy is supposed to hide or soften the utterance through modification of its “membership... to

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