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Chapter: Chapter 01: Introduction and Research Methods

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is a function of modern-day psychologists?

A) read your thoughts

B) study conformity

C) study the future

D) study how the positions of planets influence a person's personality
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 2

Section Ref: Introduction and Research Methods

2. Psychology is defined as the _____.

A) science of conscious and unconscious forces on behavior

B) empirical study of the mind

C) scientific study of the mind

D) scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

3. Which of the following is a mental process?

A) thinking

B) feeling

C) reading

D) a and b
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

4. A scientist watching jackals feed on seals measures the frequency of feeding, competitive behavior, and duration of feeding. He is gathering _____.

A) anecdotal data

B) empirical evidence

C) scientific evidence

D) critical evidence
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

5. _____ is information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods.

A) Psychological science

B) Empirical evidence

C) Critical thinking

D) Scientology
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

6. What is the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information?

A) empiricism

B) science

C) critical thinking

D) mental processing
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

7. Dr. Krostom responds to radio listeners by using mostly her own common sense, beliefs, and values rather than scientific research. This practice is more like _____ than _____.

A) fraud; vice

B) pseudopsychology; psychology

C) illegal behavior; legal behavior

D) opinion; facts
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 4, 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

8. If Jill believes that she can predict an individual's personality simply by referring back to the position of the stars on the day the individual was born, then her beliefs capture the essence of ________________.

A) critical thinking

B) psychology

C) pseudopsychology

D) astronomy
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 4

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

9. What are the goals of psychology?

A) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind

B) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior

C) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from conception to death

D) describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

10. A student placed in a gifted program based on their IQ score would be an example of which goal of psychology?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

11. Because Timothy was laughed at by his second grade peers, he was reluctant to speak out in class. This is a demonstration of which goal of psychology?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

12. Which of the following is the BEST example of psychology's goal of describing behavior?

A) giving an interest-inventory (test) at a college counseling center to determine what career or college choices would best suit a student

B) conducting an experiment to determine if watching violent cartoons increases aggressive behavior in preschoolers

C) videotaping an intersection with four-way stop signs and measuring the ratio of complete to incomplete stops made by drivers

D) sending first-time drug offenders to an inpatient treatment program rather than to jail
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

13. Which of the following is the BEST example of psychology's goal of changing behavior?

A) sending first-time drug offenders to an inpatient treatment program rather than jail

B) exploring the function of cutting behavior in a teenager's life so the teenager can understand her/his options and make choices regarding the behavior.

C) giving an interest-inventory (test) at a college counseling center to determine what career or college choices would best suit a student

D) videotaping an intersection with four-way stop signs and measuring the ratio of complete to incomplete stops made by drivers
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

14. If a psychologist is interested in studying the risk factors that lead to delinquency in adolescence, on what goal of psychology is the researcher focused?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

15. If Dr. A is interested in studying why individuals with antisocial personality continue to commit crimes and hurt others without feeling any remorse, on what goal of psychology is Dr. A focused?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

16. An example of ______________ would be if you argue that most behaviors are a product of your environment and your friend argues that behaviors are a result of heredity.

A) the nature-nurture controversy

B) applied vs. basic research

C) continuity vs. discontinuity controversy

D) an objective vs. subjective argument
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

17. A person who believes that genetics, chemical imbalances in the brain, and hormonal imbalances are responsible for explaining behavior takes the side of _________________.

A) nature

B) nurture

C) both nature and nurture

D) cognitive influences
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

18. Research has shown that watching aggression on television causes children to become physically more aggressive. As a result, the V-chip was created. What goal of psychology does this best represent?

A) describing behavior

B) explaining behavior

C) predicting behavior

D) changing behavior
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 5

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

19. Most psychologists earn degrees in the area of ____________.

A) educational psychology

B) school psychology

C) clinical psychology

D) cognitive psychology
Ans: C

Difficulty: moderate

Page Ref: 6

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology, Figure 1.2

20. What year was the first psychological laboratory founded?

A) 1659


B) 1879

C) 1950


D) 1760
Ans: B

Difficulty: moderate

Page Ref: 6

Section Ref: Origins of psychology

21. The father of psychology is ________.

A) Sigmund Freud

B) B. F. Skinner

C) Wilhelm Wundt

D) William James
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 6

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

22. If you were keeping an in-depth record of your conscious awareness including sensation, images, feelings, and thoughts that you are aware of experiencing then you would be practicing what Wundt would call _________.

A) Structuralism

B) Empiricism

C) Functionalism

D) Introspection
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

23. Which of the following psychological theorists is most associated with the school of thought called structuralism?

A) Sigmund Freud

B) John Watson

C) Harry Sullivan

D) Edward Titchener
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

24. Structuralism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ________________.

A) established a model for the scientific study of mental processes.

B) showed how separate thoughts combined to form an idea.

C) explained why individuals experience stimuli differently.

D) highlighted why different scientific methods are needed to study children and animals versus studying adult humans.
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

25. _____ investigates how mental processes help people adapt to their environment.

A) Structuralism

B) Gestalt

C) Cognitive processing

D) Functionalism
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

26. Functionalism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ____________________.

A) explained why different individuals experience stimuli differently.

B) drew the line between branches of psychology so each had its own function.

C) expanded the scope of psychology to consider such topics as emotion and observable behavior.

D) specified precisely the scope of psychology as dealing with mental processes.
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

27. Functionalism was strongly influenced by what previous theory?

A) Darwin's theory of evolution

B) structuralism

C) behaviorism

D) Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

28. The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?

A) psychobiological

B) psychosocial

C) psychoanalytic

D) psychobehavioral
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

29. The clinician who was fascinated by the ability of the unconscious mind to influence the body was ________________.

A) Edward Titchener

B) Sigmund Freud

C) William James

D) B. F. Skinner
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

30. Which of the following is an important reason why many of Freud's followers moved away from his school of thought?

A) He put too much emphasis on sex and aggression as motives for behavior.

B) He believed too strongly that the mind influences the body in such diseases as cancer and Alzheimer's Disease.

C) He put too much emphasis on social relationships and social motives in explaining behavior.

D) He believed too strongly that defense mechanisms such as projection and transference were a factor in behavior.
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

31. Which one of the following parts of Freudian theory is still accepted by many psychotherapists today?

A) the influence of sexual drives on behavior

B) the influence of aggressive drives on behavior

C) the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior

D) a and b
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

32. The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.

A) Psychodynamic perspective

B) Functionalist perspective.

C) Overt perspective.

D) Behavioral perspective.
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

33. Behaviorists were different conceptually from earlier psychologists and:

A) rejected the practice of introspection.

B) rejected the influence of unconscious forces.

C) believed classical conditioning only applied to animals such as Pavlov's dogs.

D) a and b
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

34. Pavlov's concept of ______________ explained behavior as a result of observable stimuli and observable responses.

A) introspection

B) conditioning

C) functionalism

D) shaping
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

35. Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious.

A) behaviorism

B) cognitive

C) developmental

D) conditional
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

36. Behaviorists have been most successful in treating people with problems such as _____________.

A) depression

B) anxiety

C) alcoholism

D) schizophrenia
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

37. Behaviorists are MOST successful in treating ________.

A) Neuroses of the mind

B) Observable behavior problems

C) Low self esteem

D) Psychotic disorders
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

38. The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will and self-actualization was the __________ perspective.

A) Behavioral

B) Cognitive

C) Humanistic

D) Psychodynamic
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

39. According to the humanistic perspective, human behavior is determined by ________ causes.

A) voluntary

B) external

C) objective

D) Psychoanalytic
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

40. A state of self-fulfillment all individuals naturally strive to develop and move toward, according to Abraham Maslow, is called _____.

A) self satisfaction

B) joy

C) self actualization



D) accomplishment
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

41. The fact that humans can voluntarily choose to engage in behavior is known as ________.

A) self actualization

B) free will

C) conditioning

D) introspection
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

42. The humanistic perspective was responsible for influencing the development of what area of psychology?

A) cognitive

B) sociocultural

C) positive

D) evolutionary
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

43. The psychological perspective that studies how we gather, encode, and store information is the ________ perspective.

A) cognitive

B) gestalt

C) concept formation

D) information processing
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

44. The model that likens the mind to a computer that sequentially takes in information, processes it, and then produces a response is called the ________.

A) stepwise model

B) information processing model

C) cognitive processing model

D) reasoning approach
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

45. Cognitive psychology focuses on ____.

A) conflict within the conscious mind.

B) the positive, creative, growth-seeking potential of human nature.

C) mental processes, language, and perception.

D) complex biochemical events involved in information processing.
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

46. What type of psychologist would study the processes through which students go through in committing to memory information from a textbook?

A) biological

B) cognitive

C) psychoanalytic

D) behavioral
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

47. Biopsychologists emphasize _____.

A) that behavior is the result of genetics and physiological processes occurring in the brain and nervous system

B) the belief that biology is destiny

C) the evolution of mental behavior

D) that the way to understand human behavior is to first understand animal behavior
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

48. Which of the following terms belong together?

A) structuralism: observable behavior

B) behaviorism: stimulus-response

C) psychoanalytic: unconscious conflict

D) b and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 7

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

49. Which psychological perspective emphasizes social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes?

A) behavioral

B) sociocultural

C) environmental

D) evolutionary
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

50. The norm for standing distance between two friends during a conversation is about 3-6 feet in the United States, whereas it is only about 1-2 feet in Middle Eastern countries. This difference best reflects what type of psychology?

A) behavioral

B) sociocultural

C) environmental

D) evolutionary
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

51. Sociocultural psychology is the study of the ___________.

A) influence of culture and social interactions on people's behavior

B) superiority of some cultures over others

C) common behaviors that occur in all cultures

D) cultural influences on societies
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

52. The biopsychosocial model is known as a(n) _______.

A) integration model

B) unifying theme

C) consolidation model

D) eclectic conceptualization
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

53. ______________ proposes that biological processes, psychological factors, and social forces are all interrelated and inseparable influences.

A) Biobehavioral environmental model.

B) Eclectic model

C) Biopsychosocial model

D) Consolidation model
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

54. Natural selection, adaptation, and the evolution of behavior patterns are major emphases in the _____ perspective of psychology.

A) psychobiological

B) psychosocial

C) ecological

D) evolutionary
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 8-9

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

55. The idea that depression is influenced by genetics, and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.

A) psychiatric

B) evolutionary

C) biopsychosocial

D) eclectic
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 8

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

56. The first woman to be recognized in psychology was _____.

A) Laura Schlesinger

B) Ruth Westheimer

C) Karen Horney

D) Mary Calkins
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 11

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

57. The first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology was ________.

A) Laura Schlesinger

B) Margaret Floy Washburn

C) Karen Horney

D) Mary Calkins
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 11

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

58. The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology was _____.

A) Dr. Sumner

B) Dr. Titchener

C) Dr. Wundt

D) Dr. Marley
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 11

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

59. If you prepared a study to determine which areas of the brain are used for working memory, you would be conducting _____ research.

A) dependent

B) independent

C) application

D) basic
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

60. Applied research is BEST defined as research that explores:

A) unique problems applicable to an individual person in a laboratory setting.

B) practical problems outside the laboratory in real-world settings.

C) problems that apply to a controlled laboratory setting.

D) problems that address the application of the mind-body principle.
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

61. Basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.

A) is basic to one field only

B) advances scientific knowledge

C) is done to get a grade or a tenured teaching position

D) solves basic problems encountered by humans and animals in a complex world
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

62. What type of research would study ways to enhance athletic performance?

A) independent

B) basic

C) dependent

D) applied
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

63. A scientist who seeks knowledge for his/her own sake is conducting...

A) basic research

B) applied research

C) elemental research

D) fundamental research
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

64. Replication increases scientific confidence in a theory if the _____.

A) citations are accurate across studies

B) findings are similar across studies

C) statistics are accurate across studies

D) statistics are significant across studies
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

65. A researcher who performs a previous study following the same procedures, to see if he would get the same results would be an example of _____.

A) an invalid research method

B) a replication of studies

C) plagiarism

D) a waste of research time and funding
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

66. ____________ is a statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies.

A) Operational research

B) Recombinant analysis

C) Meta-analysis

D) Data synthesis
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 12

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

67. Someone interested in studying the effects of text-messaging rather than talking on the phone on the quality of friendships would perform __________ as the first step in order to follow the scientific method.

A) forming a testable hypothesis

B) developing a theory

C) reviewing the literature of existing theories

D) designing a study
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

68. The first step in the scientific method is ________.

A) developing a theory

B) forming a testable hypothesis

C) designing a study

D) reviewing the literature of existing theories
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

69. A hypothesis is a _____.

A) specific prediction about how one variable is related to another

B) precise definition of how variables will be observed and measured in a study

C) concept that explains previously gathered data

D) simplified theory
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

70. What stage of the scientific method would someone be at if they make a prediction that drinking alcohol will make people more violent during a sporting event?

A) developing a theory

B) forming a testable hypothesis

C) designing a study

D) reviewing the literature of existing theories
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

71. What are methods used to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data?

A) empirical evidence

B) operational definitions

C) statistical analyses

D) critical facts
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

72. Data from many studies have been compiled, and researchers have developed a(n) __________ to explain their results.

A) hypothesis

B) experimental study

C) abstract

D) theory
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 13

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

73. A participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect is known as _____.

A) participant observer

B) placebo effect

C) informed consent

D) debriefing
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

74. According to the rules of informed consent, when you ask the researcher if you have to complete/finish the experiment in which you are participating the researcher should respond with _____.

A) "You have the right to drop out of the study at any time."

B) "I'm sorry, the experiment must continue."

C) "Please continue. I will debrief you afterwards."

D) "You may drop the study now, but you will forfeit credit."
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

75. According to the rules of informed consent, a researcher must disclose which of the following before the study begins?

A) potential physical risks

B) the reasons for involuntary participation and deception

C) potential discomforts

D) a and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

76. Deception is sometimes used in psychological research in order to _____.

A) create a realistic situation with genuine reactions

B) protect the public from unpleasant research realities

C) protect participants from being harmed

D) prevent sample bias, ethnocentric bias, and experimenter bias
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

77. Debriefing is _____.

A) interviewing subjects after a study to find out what they were thinking during their participation

B) explaining the purpose of the study, anticipated results, and deceptions used when the study is over

C) disclosing potential physical and emotional risks, and the nature of the study prior to its beginning

D) interviewing subjects after a study to determine whether any deceptions were effective in preventing them from learning the true purpose of the study
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

78. If a psychology teacher lets students earn extra credit by volunteering for research, he/she is ethically required to _____.

A) volunteer for a study himself/herself

B) provide an alternative extra credit activity of equal value

C) help conduct the study himself

D) all of these options
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

79. Which of the following organizations must approve a research study before it is conducted?

A) American Psychological Association

B) College institutional review board

C) Community members

D) No approval is necessary
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

80. If a researcher is interested in studying the effects of administering different dosages of cocaine on behavior, then he is MOST likely going to be concerned with _________ during his research.

A) the food and drug administration

B) the state police

C) Narcotics Anonymous

D) guidelines for the ethical care of animals
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

81. Which of the following is true about animal research?

A) It accounts for only 7-8% of psychological research.

B) Most animal research uses rats or mice.

C) Animal researchers use punishments as often as they use rewards.

D) a and b
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

82. With which type of animal is nonhuman research mostly conducted?

A) rats


B) dogs

C) cats


D) primates
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

83. Which of the following is an ethical concern of psychologists?

A) the safety and health of research animals

B) subject bias

C) deception in research

D) a and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

84. A therapist may be required to break client confidentiality if the client _____.

A) asks to be reimbursed for their services

B) threatens to hurt others

C) is abusing a child or an elder adult

D) b and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

85. Which of the following therapists is violating psychology's ethical standard of confidentiality?

A) Dr. Novak called the Department of Social Services to report her client, who admitted during their session together that she was abusing her nine-year-old daughter.

B) Dr. Jones describes detailed case histories of former clients to his psychology class without disguising their characteristics.

C) Dr. Smith-Nguyen discusses a client with his wife to get her advice.

D) b and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

86. If a clinical psychologist is doing therapy with someone who threatens to kill another person, the psychologist should_________________________.

A) try to talk him out of it but cannot call the police no matter what the outcome due to confidentiality concern.

B) have the person committed to a mental institution

C) call the police and inform the potential victim if the person making the threat cannot be talked out of it

D) nothing; due to confidentiality concerns the psychologist is powerless.
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 14

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

87. The BEST definition of an experiment is _____.

A) a standardized scientific procedure for conducting investigations

B) the identical treatment of participants in two groups to determine the effect of a dependent variable on an independent variable

C) a systematic recording of behavior exhibited by participants in the laboratory

D) a carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a causal effect on other variables
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

88. Researchers can isolate a single factor and examine the effect of that factor alone on a particular behavior through use of a(n) ________.

A) experiment

B) correlational study

C) biological study

D) descriptive study
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

89. A researcher would use __________ research, if they were interested in determining whether listening to subliminal advertising causes an increase in sales of products.

A) descriptive

B) correlational

C) naturalistic observation

D) experimental
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 15, 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

90. _____ research observes and records behaviors without manipulating variables or producing causal explanations.

A) Descriptive

B) Empirical

C) Independent

D) Dependent
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

91. In a naturalistic observation, a researcher would be most likely to do which of the following?

A) conduct an in-depth study of a single subject

B) observe participants as they behave naturally in the laboratory

C) observe and systematically record behavior in a participant's natural state or habitat

D) determine cause and effect
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

92. __________ research is being conducted when a researcher is watching and recording the interactions between members of a Koala family in the wild.

A) An animal husbandry survey

B) A quasi-experiment

C) Introspection

D) Naturalistic observation
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

93. Observing the activities of 3 year old from a hidden location within their daycare would be an example of the___________ type of research method.

A) Correlational

B) Experimental

C) Naturalistic observation

D) Survey
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

94. A survey is a(n) _____.

A) experimental technique for sampling a population's attitudes

B) research technique for assessing behaviors and attitudes of a wide selection of people

C) noncorrelational research technique for sampling a wide variety of populations

D) unreliable and invalid research technique, usually used by magazines and political or commercial pollsters
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

95. Which scientific method of research would be used if a college student running for student body president was trying to determine whether to emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services in their campaign?

A) a case study

B) naturalistic observation

C) an experiment

D) a survey
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

96. Surveys can be used to _____ behavior.

A) define

B) predict

C) explain and change

D) change
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

97. In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.

A) interview many research subjects who have a single problem or disorder

B) conduct an in-depth study of a single research participant

C) choose and investigate a single topic

D) use any of these options, which describe different types of case studies
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

98. If you wanted to study someone with a rare disorder such as photophobia (the fear of light), your BEST research option would be a/an _____.

A) experimental study

B) correlational study

C) case study

D) survey
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

99. In _____research, a researcher observes or measures (without manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them, without inferring a causal relationship.

A) experimental

B) correlational

C) basic


D) applied
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 15, 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

100. Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from _____ studies.

A) experimental

B) descriptive

C) correlational

D) case
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 15, 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

101. _____ research is used to study the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

A) Traditional

B) Psychological

C) Biological

D) Clinical
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 15, 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

102. Which of the following is a disadvantage of an experiment?

A) cause and effect cannot be determined

B) participant bias

C) researcher bias

D) b and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 15

Section Ref: Research Methods

103. The BEST definition of an independent variable is a _____.

A) measurable behavior that is exhibited by a participant and is affected by the dependent variable

B) variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable

C) variable that is kept constant during an experiment to prevent contamination of other variables

D) variable that cannot be manipulated by anyone
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

104. In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.

A) independent

B) intervening

C) controlled

D) dependent
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

105. _____ are manipulated; _____ are measured.

A) Dependent variables; independent variables

B) Surveys; experiments

C) Statistics; correlations

D) IVs; DVs
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

106. In an experiment to determine if rewards will increase recycling efforts on campus, the dependent variable is _____.

A) rewards vs. no rewards

B) the amount of recycling done by students and faculty on campus

C) the students who recycle

D) a and c
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

107. In an experiment to determine if listening to music affects how well students perform on a test, the independent variable of this study is ___________________.

A) test performance

B) music

C) time spent studying

D) students
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

108. Students were divided into two groups. Students in one group were ignored when they talked without raising their hands. Students in the other group were attended to in the teacher's usual manner. The independent variable in this experiment was _____.

A) initial levels of talking

B) decreased talking

C) attention from the teacher

D) division of students into two groups
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

109. If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new "memory" drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the _____ would be the independent variable (IV), and the _____ would be the dependent variable (DV).

A) response to the drug; amount of the drug

B) experimental group; control group

C) exposure to the drug; quiz scores

D) researcher variables; extraneous variables
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

110. The BEST definition of a dependent variable is _____.

A) a measurable behavior that is affected by the independent variable

B) a variable that is controlled by the experimenter and is applied to the participant to determine its effect

C) a variable that is kept constant during an experiment to prevent contamination of other variables

D) a variable that cannot do anything by itself
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

111. Experimenter bias refers to _____.

A) intentional subtle cues given by a researcher that lead a subject to guess what the correct response should be

B) experimenters that unintentionally let their beliefs and expectations influence the results of a study

C) the experimenter's belief that his or her study results are more accurate than any other study's results

D) the tendency of experimenters to unintentionally report their results in a manner which always supports their hypotheses
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

112. In an experiment studying the effects of alcohol on memory, the group of participants not given alcohol is referred to as the ____________.

A) experimental group

B) control group

C) independent variable

D) random sample
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

113. In an experiment studying whether eating sugar influences children's ability to focus their attention on a problem-solving task, the group of children given sugar is referred to as the______________.

A) experimental group

B) control group

C) independent variable

D) random sample
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

114. _____ are factors that are not being directly manipulated or measured, which could affect research results if they are not held constant.

A) Random variables

B) Placebos

C) Extraneous variables

D) Replicators
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

115. Which of the following can be considered to be an extraneous variable in the study?

A) television violence

B) physical aggression

C) room temperature

D) researcher intervention
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

116. While conducting research, you unintentionally provide subtle cues to the study's participants about the purpose of the research, which influences your results in the direction you expected) This is a demonstration of _____.

A) ethnocentric research

B) misapplication of an independent variable

C) experimenter bias

D) subject bias
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

117. The BEST definition of a double blind study is research in which _____.

A) both the control group and the experimental group are unaware of what is being studied

B) neither the participants in the treatment group nor the control group knows which treatment is being given to which group

C) both the researcher and the participants are unaware of who is in the experimental and control groups

D) two control groups (or placebo conditions) must be used
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

118. An example of a(n) ___________ research study would be where an experiment was conducted on caffeine-induced stress in which neither the class researchers nor the participants in the experiment knew who did and did not receive caffeine until after the study was completed.

A) counterbalanced design

B) double-blind study

C) unknown condition experiment

D) controlled deception condition
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

119. In a study in which neither the patient nor the physician knows whether a patient is getting the drug or the placebo, 85% of participants and patients were correct in identifying whether they were in the experimental or control condition. Contrary to design expectations, the experiment was not ________.

A) effective

B) reliable

C) correlational

D) double blind
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

120. Ethnocentrism in research refers to _____.

A) the belief that a typical behavior in one's culture is typical of all cultures

B) a researcher's inflated sense of his or her own research abilities

C) a central need to include people from all races and cultures in an experiment

D) an attitude among researchers that their field of study is more important than any other field
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

121. One of the BEST ways to deal with ethnocentrism in scientific research is to _____.

A) create culturally diverse research review committees

B) provide cultural sensitivity training to all researchers

C) use cross-cultural sampling

D) ignore it because cultural universals are more prevalent than cultural specifics
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

122. Because research in the United States has demonstrated that adolescents are not very respectful to the elderly, Sara concludes that all adolescents everywhere in the world are disrespectful to the elderly. This is an example of ___________________.

A) cross cultural sampling

B) ethnocentrism

C) participant bias

D) social desirability bias
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

123. Sample bias occurs when _____.

A) the sample of participants in a research study are not representative of the larger population

B) participants exhibit behaviors that are considered typical in their own culture

C) an experimenter biases a sample by providing unintentional cues about correct responses

D) the subjects are provided unintentional information about the experiment
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

124. If a presidential candidate concludes from a poll conducted in Minnesota that he is ahead in the race and that from those results that he will win the election nationwide than the candidate is guilty of _____________.

A) experimenter bias

B) sample bias

C) the placebo effect

D) the lack of adequate controls
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

125. A sample is BEST defined as _____.

A) a group of participants in a study who have sampled the treatment condition

B) a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population

C) the total of all possible cases from which a population is selected

D) a group of participants in a study that is atypical of the larger population
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

126. In a study on student conformity, researchers selected a group of college students who appeared to represent the characteristics of students from the entire college campus. The selected group served as the _____ of the college _____.

A) representatives; campus

B) population; representatives

C) sample; population

D) representatives; sample
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

127. Research participants who try to present themselves in a good light are demonstrating _____.

A) good judgment

B) the social desirability response

C) a placebo effect

D) exhibiting deceptive behavior
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

128. If a student lies on a questionnaire regarding the number of sexual partners he has had during the course of his lifetime then ___________ can best describe the student's behavior.

A) social desirability bias

B) experimenter bias

C) a placebo effect

D) distrusting bias
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

129. One way to ensure less sample bias is to select a(n) _____ sample.

A) representative/random

B) homogenous/ethnocentric

C) placebo/control

D) heterogeneous/ethnocentric
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

130. One way to decrease participant bias is to _____.

A) conduct single-blind and double-blind studies

B) use the selectivity model

C) use placebo controls

D) a and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

131. The control group in an experiment is the group in which participants _____.

A) receive no treatment

B) receive the dependent variable

C) do not receive the DV

D) receive the IV
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

132. The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.

A) do not receive the independent variable

B) receive the dependent variable

C) do not receive the DV

D) receive the IV or treatment
Ans: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

133. In a study to test the effects of alcohol on driving, you were in a group of participants that drove poorly. This means that ____.

A) you were in the experimental group

B) you were in the control group

C) there is insufficient information to determine your group

D) you want know until the study is concluded in which group you were a participant
Ans: C

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

134. If in a drug-study to test the effectiveness of a new drug for treating the common cold, you are randomly assigned to a group that gets the drug, this would mean that you _____.

A) are in the control group

B) are in the experimental group

C) are in the placebo group

D) are unaware that you are participating in a study
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

135. In a procedure called _____, participants are placed in experimental conditions on the basis of chance, thus minimizing biases or preexisting differences in the groups.

A) random sampling

B) random assignment

C) group selection

D) experimental assignment
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

136. If you flip a coin to determine whether you should be in Group A or Group B for an in-class experiment you would be using the______________ procedure.

A) experimental assignment

B) independent selection

C) representative grouping

D) random assignment
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 17

Section Ref: Research Methods

137. The main advantage of naturalistic observation is that it _____.

A) eliminates extraneous variables

B) allows researchers to obtain data about natural behavior

C) is less time-consuming and expensive than other research methods

D) can determine cause and effect
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

138. What is an advantage of survey research?

A) Surveys can identify causes of behavior.

B) Surveys can provide more in-depth information than other research methods.

C) Surveys can identify subject bias.

D) Surveys can be used on larger samples than other research methods.
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

139. In 1848 Phineas Gage had a metal rod accidentally shot through part of his face and brain. As a result, he suffered a drastic personality transformation, with his injury and recovery documented by his physician. This is an example of _____________.

A) survey

B) case study

C) experiment

D) correlation
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 19

Section Ref: Research Methods

140. A number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between variables is called a/an _____.

A) inference

B) inferential statistic

C) correlation coefficient

D) quasi-correlation
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

141. Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relation?

A) +.78


B) -.84

C) +.35


D) 00
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

142. Salary and years of education are _____ correlated, and grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are _____ correlated.

A) not; positively

B) negatively; positively

C) positively; not

D) positively, negatively
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 21

Section Ref: Research Methods

143. Which of the following is an example of a zero correlation?

A) the relationship between your grades and how much time you spend studying

B) the relationship between your alcohol consumption and physical reaction time

C) the relationship between intensity of rain and umbrella use

D) The relationship between your adult height and intelligence
Ans: D

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

144. Which is the stronger correlation, -1.00 or +1.00?

A) +1.00


B) They are the same.

C) -1.00


D) Neither; -1.00 does not exist.
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

145. Since there is a correlation between cancer and stress, which of the following statements is true?

A) cancer causes stress

B) stress causes cancer

C) knowing a person's stress level can predict their likelihood of cancer

D) obesity causes both stress and likelihood of cancer to increase.
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

146. Both early and modern-day brain researchers have used _____ to study the brain.

A) dissection of the brains of deceased humans

B) pseudopsychology

C) clinical observations or case studies of living people

D) a and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

147. An example of ________ would be destroying the amygdala in a research rat in order to observe changes in its behavior.

A) lesioning research

B) unethical research

C) ablation research

D) animal husbandry
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

148. An example of ___________ would be finding out that damaging the cerebellum in a rat causes the rat to lose its balance and posture.

A) lesioning research

B) correlational research

C) ablation research

D) noninvasive methods
Ans: A

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 20

Section Ref: Research Methods

149. An example of _________ correlation would be the more a mother smokes, the more damage a fetus suffers.

A) positive

B) negative

C) zero


D) perfect
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 21

Section Ref: Research Methods

150. An example of a __________ correlation is the more absences a student has, the lower their exam scores.

A) positive

B) negative

C) zero


D) perfect
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 21

Section Ref: Research Methods

151. If you use a small wire to record the brain's electrical activity, the output produces an _____.

A) EGG


B) EEG

C) EKG


D) EGK
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 22

Section Ref: Research Methods

152. If you are having specific areas of your brain stimulated to prepare for performing brain surgery, than you are MOST likely undergoing _____.

A) ESB


B) EEG

C) EGG


D) EFG
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 22

Section Ref: Research Methods

153. EEGs can determine which of the following?

A) mental disorders

B) brain tumors

C) which areas of the brain are most active during a particular task

D) b and c
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 22

Section Ref: Research Methods

154. If a person has been injected with radioactive glucose and his doctor is observing the activity levels in various parts of his brain, than he is having a(n) _____.

A) near death experience

B) PET scan

C) MI scan

D) CT scan
Ans: B

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 23

Section Ref: Research Methods

155. What is an X-ray procedure that reveals cross-sectional views of internal structural damage or problems in the brain?

A) positron emission tomography (PET)

B) computed tomography scan (CT)

C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

D) none of these options; X rays cannot be used safely on brain tissue
Ans: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 23

Section Ref: Research Methods

156. Which of the following provides a 3-D image of the brain?

A) positron emission tomography (PET)

B) computed tomography scan (CT)

C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

D) transcranial magnetic stimulation
Ans: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 23

Section Ref: Research Methods

157. Which of the following methods can be used to treat depression?

A) positron emission tomography (PET)

B) computed tomography scan (CT)

C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

D) transcranial magnetic stimulation
Ans: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 23

Section Ref: Research Methods

158. SQ4R stands for ___________________.

A) Survey, question, read, recite, review, write

B) Scan, query, read, repeat, reword, recite

C) Survey, query, review, read, reread, recite

D) Scan, question, read, write by rewording, repeat
Ans: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 24

Section Ref: Getting Most from Your Study of Psychology

159. Before you attempt to change your time management skills, you should _____.

A) record current activities

B) have a trial run of different strategies

C) reward yourself

D) create a daily schedule
Ans: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 26

Section Ref: Getting Most from Your Study of Psychology

160. Studying the night before the exam would be an example of _____ and studying for 1 hour a day 5 nights before the exam would be an example of _________.

A) distributed, massed

B) massed, distributed

C) massed, massed

D) distributed, distributed
Ans: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 27

Section Ref: Getting Most from Your Study of Psychology

161. Although studying new information to the point where you can recite it is one way to learn, _______, where you know how key terms interact and generate examples, is a deeper way to study.

A) in-depth recitation

B) maximizing

C) overlearning

D) interactionism
Ans: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 27

Section Ref: Getting Most from Your Study of Psychology

Essay

162. List and describe the four goals of psychology giving an original example of how either basic or applied research could be used to achieve each goal.



Ans:
Page Ref: 4 - 6

Section Ref: Introducing Psychology

163. Contrast the following three schools/perspectives in psychology with regard to their research methods, beliefs about the effects of the past on behavior, and areas of emphasis: psychoanalytic, behaviorism, and cognitive psychology. Explain which perspective you find most intriguing.

Ans:
Page Ref: 6 - 10

Section Ref: Origins of Psychology

164. Suppose you believe that stress causes headaches. Describe what you would need to do for each of the six basic steps in the scientific method to research your belief.

Ans:
Page Ref: 12 - 15

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

165. Imagine that you are an editor of Psychological Science, a respected journal that reports scientific results in psychology. Describe how you consider statistics, publication, replication, and citations to be related to determining the legitimacy of research results.

Ans:
Page Ref: 12 - 15

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

166. Describe the different types of research methods that individuals involved with biological research can use.

Ans:
Page Ref: 22

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

167. Imagine that you are a psychologist. Describe ethical considerations for human participants in research studies, and the benefits, limitations, and ethical considerations for animal research. Then, describe what you would tell a therapy client about what she can expect with regard to your maintaining her confidentiality. Finally, state the possible consequences of violating ethical standards in psychology.

Ans:
Page Ref: 12 - 15

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

168. Suppose you believe negative advertising causes people to vote against the political candidate attacked in the ad. Describe an experiment you could perform to test your theory. Be sure to include a hypothesis, operational definitions of your independent and dependent variables, who your participants would be, and how you would randomly assign them to experimental or control groups.

Ans:
Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

169. What are some ways that you as a researcher might be able to reduce the likelihood of social desirability bias in participants?

Ans:
Page Ref: 16

Section Ref: Research Methods

170. Suppose you wanted to determine whether the use of marijuana is related to car accidents. Discuss the major limitations and merits of using each of the following research methods: an experiment, a naturalistic observation, a survey, and a case study; then state which method you would ultimately use.

Ans:
Page Ref: 15 - 18

Section Ref: Research Methods

171. Provide an example of a positive correlation, negative correlation, and zero correlation.

Ans:
Page Ref: 20 – 21

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

172. Discuss why correlation is necessary but not sufficient to establish causation.

Ans:
Page Ref: 20 – 21

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

173. Contrast the three types of brain scans: CT, PET, and MRI (or fMRI), providing an example of when each scan might be used)

Ans:
Page Ref: 22 - 23

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology

174. Discuss the SQ4R method. Give an example how you would use it utilizing information from the chapter and applying each of the steps.

Ans:
Page Ref: 24 – 25

Section Ref: The Science of Psychology






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