Harvard referencing rmit university Library guide

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Personal communication

Include personal communication, such as face-to-face interviews, conversations, telephone calls, letters or emails, in an in-text reference.

Information about personal communication must be included in the in-text reference. Include the type of personal communication (for example, personal conversation, email, interview, telephone conversation) and the date in a date-month-year format.

Personal conversation can be abbreviated to pers. conv. and a telephone conversation can be abbreviated to tel. conv.

However, personal communication references do not need to be included in the reference list.

My field placement supervisor commented ‘… ‘ (CM Burns 2014, pers. conv., 20 April).

Ms Merrick (Melville Shire Council CEO) confirmed the details by email on 25 April 2014.

Secondary citations

Use a secondary citation to acknowledge the work of an author(s) that you have read about in another author(s) work.

In the in-text reference, include the original source of information and the source you have read. For example, if an article by Hosany and Martin you are reading cites Heath and Scott, refer to both Heath & Scott and Hosany & Martin.

Early research indicated ... (Heath & Scott, cited in Hosany & Martin 2012).

Heath and Scott (cited in Hosany & Martin 2012) claim that ...

In the reference list, include only the source you have read.

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