Effective citing and referencing



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Effective citing and referencing
5
How to cite
When we cite, we should make clear what it is that we are citing. It must be clear to the reader just what it is that we owe to someone else, and whether we have quoted exactly or have used our own words and understanding of the original material.

The reader must be able to distinguish clearly between
our words/work and the words/work of others.

Quotations—the exact words as used by others—are indicated either by quotation marks or by displaying (indenting) the quotation.

Paraphrase and summary of others work should similarly be distinguishable from our own words and ideas.

Use of a style guide ensures that our citations and references are recorded consistently.

Choice of introductory or parenthetical citation is often a matter of readability, emphasis and authority.
As noted in the definitions below, the citation in the text links to a full reference that will enable the reader to trace the exact material used.
The three main types of in-text citation areas follows.
Author
In-text citation is done by an introductory and/or parenthetical citation providing:

the last name of the author, and

page numbers) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, if applicable.
Author–date
In-text citation is done by an introductory and/or parenthetical citation providing:

the last name of the author, and

the year of publication from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, and the page number, if applicable. Numbered footnote
In-text citation is done by:

superscript note numbers that come after the referenced passage, and after the final punctuation mark, if used, and

corresponding footnotes placed at the bottom of their page of reference containing all reference details from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken when using a source fora second or subsequent time, a shorter footnote reference is sufficient.
The following section provides examples on how to cite printed sources non-printed electronic sources online video clips social media.




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