Effective citing and referencing



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Effective citing and referencing
Contents
Introduction

1
Why cite


2
What to cite

3
When to cite

4
How to cite

5
Definitions
11
Documentation checklist
14
Elements to be included in the reference
16


Effective citing and referencing
1
Introduction
In the International Baccalaureate (IB) community we produce different types of documents and other forms of work, some of which rely on resources by other people. Following good academic practice, it is expected that we appropriately acknowledge any ideas, words, or work of other people.
This means that, when creating an authentic piece of work, we are expected to undertake research on what is already known analyse the research in the context of the work to be produced compare and/or contrast existing knowledge against our own findings/thoughts/opinions
• synthesize and present the document in an appropriate way for the expected audience acknowledge all contributing sources appropriately.
The ways in which we can acknowledge contributing sources appropriately may vary according to the type of work we produce. Sources are acknowledged differently in a press release or magazine article, in apiece of fiction, in artwork or a musical performance, a slide presentation, film clip or radio broadcast. The important, honest thing for us to do in these and other types of work is to acknowledge our sources and influences in someway. In academic writing, and in any work presented for assessment, not only is it necessary to acknowledge our sources appropriately, but it is regarded as important that the acknowledgments be made using a consistent style. The use of a style guide helps us to ensure this consistency.
When we use other people’s words, work and ideas to support our own ideas, or to demonstrate divergent opinion, it is essential that we indicate whose words and work we are using. Any reader would benefit from seeing just how the other person’s work contributes to ours.
If we fail to show that we are using someone else’s words, work or ideas by not indicating that they originated with someone else, then we mislead the reader. If we give the impression that these words or ideas are our own when they are not, this is not good scholarship and, deliberate or unintentional, maybe deemed as academic misconduct.
Purpose of this document
The purpose of this publication is to guide members of the International Baccalaureate (IB) community in understanding the IB’s expectations with regards to referencing the ideas, words, or work of other people when producing an original document or piece of work. This document provides guidance on referencing and demonstrates some of the differences between the most widely used styles. Due to the wide range of subjects, multiple response languages and the diversity of referencing styles, the IB does not prescribe or insist on a particular style. All examples provided in this document are for illustration purposes only. The IB’s requirements are for honesty in indicating when and which ideas and words are not the writer’s own, and consistency in referencing the source of those ideas and words.




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