Effective citing and referencing



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Definitions
Effective citing and referencing
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Summary
A summary is a much-shortened summing up of someone else’s work. We might summarize a chapter or academic paper, or perhaps even a book, in two or three sentences. Again, although we are using our own words, we must still cite the original source used.
Summaries are often used in a review of the literature—when we sum up what other writers have said or done in investigating a topic or theme.
Quotation
When we use someone else’s
exact words, we quote that original author, and we show this is a quotation by using quotation marks. Longer quotations maybe indicated by the use of an indented paragraph (without quotation marks. As well as indicating the words quoted, we must also acknowledge the author by using an in-text citation, the citation in turn linking to a full reference.
Quotations should normally be used sparingly and carefully essays on literary subjects or from historical documents might include more quotations than other essays.

Effective citing and referencing
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Documentation checklist
Documentation checklist
When you have used an author’s exact words, have you put quotation marks around the quotation and named (cited) the original writer?
(If you indent your quotations, quotation marks are not needed, but the author must still be cited have you cited your indented quotations?)
When you put someone else’s thoughts and ideas in your own words, have you still named cited) the original author(s)?
When you use someone else’s words or work, is it clear where such use starts—and where it finishes?
Have you included full references for all borrowed images, tables, graphs, maps, and soon Print material Have you included the page numbers) of print material you have used especially important with exact quotations)?
Internet material Have you included both the date on which the material was posted and the date of your last visit to the web page or site?
Internet material Have you included the URL or the DOI?
For each citation in the text, is there a full reference in your list of references (works cited/
bibliography) at the end Is the citation a direct link to the first words) of the reference?
For each reference in the list of references (works cited/bibliography) at the end, is there a citation in the text Does) the first words) of the reference link directly to the citation as used?
Is your list of references (works cited/bibliography) in alphabetical order, with the last name of the author first?




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