Effective citing and referencing



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Definitions
Effective citing and referencing
12
Citation
A citation is an indication (signal) in the text that this (material) is not ours we have borrowed it (as a direct quote, paraphrase or summary) from someone or somewhere else. The citation in the text can be
• in the form of an introductory phrase, or at the end of the statement, or indicated by a superscript or bracketed number that leads to a similarly numbered footnote or endnote.
Every citation should be given a full reference that enables the reader to locate the exact source used.
Reference
A reference gives full details of the source cited in the work the parts or elements of the reference should be noted in a consistent order. Use of a recognized style guide will help ensure consistency, and will also ensure that all required elements are included.
Every reference should be given a citation in the text. If we have looked at a source but not mentioned or cited it in the text, then we do not include it as a reference.
Bibliography/references/works cited
Most style guides require a list of references at the end of the work. This is usually a list, in alphabetical order, of the authors (last name first, whose words and works have been cited in the work. The title of this section varies from one style guide to another.
Each entry in the list of references includes the full information (or as much of it as can be found, expressed in a consistent fashion, which will allow an interested reader to track down exactly where you found the material you have used and cited.
Paraphrase
In writing an essay, we often use our own words to put over someone else’s thoughts and ideas. While there are some words that we cannot change (especially the names of people, places, chemicals, and soon, we should use our own words for as much as we can of the rest of the passage. We should also aim to change the structure of the passage, perhaps by reordering the thoughts and ideas.
When we paraphrase, we need to make it very clear where the original author’s ideas start and where they finish. If we include our own examples, we should make it clear that these are our thoughts and not those of the original author.




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