Effective citing and referencing

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Effective citing and referencing
The words listed here are often used, sometimes interchangeably, in textbooks and in style guides. To support understanding, the terminology in this guide uses the following definitions.
Documentation is the stylized process of indicating sources in the text (citation) and giving full details references) to enable another reader to locate the sources.
Style guide
A style guide is a published manual that gives guidance on citation and references to help ensure that our documentation is expressed consistently, and that we include all the elements needed for our sources to be identified.
Some style guides offer more than one set of choices or sub-styles; if we use a particular sub-style, we must be sure to use the same sub-style throughout our work.
As well as advice on citations and referencing, many published style guides give advice on spelling, abbreviations, punctuation, and soon. Many also give guidance on research and on the general writing process.
Style guides in common use in the academic world include the following.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

APA (American Pyschological Association)



CSE (Council of Science Editors)

ISO 690 (International Organization for Standardization)
Note local variations between style guides writers should be sure to follow a single style guide consistently. When consulted sources are accessed online, the IB prefers the use of URLs (uniform resource locators) or
DOIs (digital object identifiers, even if the published style guide makes them optional.
Owing to different editions of style guides, the variety of languages in which members of the IB community complete their work, and diverse subject areas, the IB does not endorse any particular style guide. This choice is left to the discretion of the authors/creators, or their advisers.
For assessment purposes, IB students are not expected to show faultless expertise in referencing but are expected to acknowledge all uses of other people’s work.

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