Citing your References in the mhra style

How to calculate your word count

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1.5 How to calculate your word count

When writing an essay or a dissertation for English or Drama, you will usually need to provide a word count. Note that the allowed word length does not include abstract, footnotes/endnotes, bibliography and any appendices but it does include quotations used in the body of the text.

To calculate the word count without including the bibliography, highlight the relevant text to be counted.

  • To check your word count in Word 2010, click on ‘Review’ and ‘Word count’. A dialog box will open allowing you to choose whether to include footnotes and endnotes. 

  • In Word for Mac 2011, click on ‘Tools’ and select ‘Word Count’. The default is to include text in footnotes and endnotes, so un-tick the option ‘Include footnotes and endnotes’ to change this.

2. How to reference specific kinds of sources

2.1 Books

General rules:

  • The bibliography needs to be arranged alphabetically by author surname, so always reverse the name of the first author in the bibliography reference.

  • Use book title as it appears on the title page.

  • Include edition if not the first, in the form ‘2nd edn’, ‘rev. edn’ etc, preceded by a comma.

  • If any publication details are not given in the source, use: ‘[n.p.]’ (= no place), ‘[n. pub.]’ (= no publisher), ‘[n.d.]’ (= no date).

  • Include page number(s) in footnote references only as you are citing a specific section of the book, in the form ‘p.’ for ‘page’ or ‘pp.’ for ‘pages’. In the bibliography you are citing the whole book, so no page numbers are needed.

  • Put a full stop at the end of footnote references, but not at the end of bibliography references.

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