Chapter 7: Psychological/Trait Theories of Crime



Download 52.6 Kb.
Page2/16
Date12.04.2018
Size52.6 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   16
Chapter Outline

  • Early Psychological Theorizing Regarding Criminal Behavior

    • Freud’s Model of the Psyche and Implications for Criminal Behavior

      • Freud originated psychoanalysis which is founded on the perception of resistance used by individuals when therapists attempt to make them conscious of their unconscious.

      • The psychoanalytic perspective is both complex and extremely systematized.

        • First, an individual’s behavior is presumed to be due to the three aspects of his or her personality: the id, ego, and superego.

          • The id is the source of instinctual drives; it contains everything that is present at birth.

            • Essentially, there are two types of instinctual drives.

              • There are constructive drives, usually of a sexual nature (the libido).

              • The other type of instinctual drive is destructive.

          • The ego is the moderator between the demands of an instinct (i.e., the id), the superego, and reality.

            • The ego characterizes what is referred to as reason and sanity while the id refers to passions.

            • In the id, there are no conflicts whereas in the ego conflicts between impulses need to be resolved.

          • The superego is also designated as a conscience.

            • This evolves during the course of an individual’s development.

            • Individuals learn the restrictions, mores, and values of society.

        • Second, anxiety, defense mechanisms, and the unconscious are also key principles of the psychoanalytical perspective.

          • In terms of anxiety, this is considered a warning of looming danger and a painful experience.

          • This results in the individual attempting to correct the situation.

          • In most instances, the ego can cope with this anxiety through rational measures.

          • When this does not work, however, the ego uses irrational measures, like rationalization (ego-defense mechanisms).

      • Freud maintained that large portions of the ego and superego can remain unconscious.

        • It takes a great deal of effort for individuals to realize their conscious.

        • The unconscious include disturbing memories, forbidden urges, and other experiences that have been repressed or pushed out of the conscious.

        • Until these unconscious experiences are brought to awareness, the individual could engage in irrational and destructive behavior.

    • Aichhorn

      • Attempted to apply psychoanalysis to uncover unconscious motives of juveniles engaging in delinquent behavior.

      • Distinguished between manifest and latent delinquency.

        • Delinquency is considered manifest when it results in antisocial behavior; latent delinquency is when the same state of mind exists but has not yet expressed itself in such behavior.

    • Erikson

      • Examined adolescents struggling to discover their own ego identity, while negotiating, learning, and understanding social interactions as well as developing a sense of morality and right from wrong.

    • Abrahamsen

      • Maintained that criminal behavior is a symptom of more complex personality distortions, there is a conflict between the ego and superego, as well as the inability to control impulsive and pleasure-seeking drives because these influences are rooted in early childhood and later reinforced through reactions to familial and social stresses.




    • Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   16


The database is protected by copyright ©psyessay.org 2017
send message

    Main page
mental health
health sciences
gandhi university
Rajiv gandhi
Chapter introduction
multiple choice
research methods
south africa
language acquisition
Relationship between
qualitative research
literature review
Curriculum vitae
early childhood
relationship between
Masaryk university
nervous system
Course title
young people
Multiple choice
bangalore karnataka
state university
Original article
academic performance
essay plans
social psychology
psychology chapter
Front matter
United states
Research proposal
sciences bangalore
Mental health
compassion publications
workplace bullying
publications sorted
comparative study
chapter outline
mental illness
Course outline
decision making
sciences karnataka
working memory
Literature review
clinical psychology
college students
systematic review
problem solving
research proposal
human rights
Learning objectives
karnataka proforma