Chapter 1: what is social psychology?



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CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY?

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Social psychologists do not generally 


A. work in settings outside of an academic context.
B. consider the effects of external, nonsocial factors on behavior.
C. study phenomena about which commonsense beliefs are held.
D. pay more attention to group behavior than the behavior of individuals within groups.

 

2. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be most likely to study? 


A. Are crime rates different among people of higher versus lower socioeconomic status?
B. What risk factors contribute to the onset of schizophrenia?
C. Is there a link between playing violent video games and engaging in aggressive behavior?
D. Do citizens in countries with democratic governments report greater life satisfaction than citizens in countries with autocratic governments?

 

3. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be least likely to study? 


A. What kinds of persuasion techniques are the most effective in product advertising?
B. What are the most important qualities people look for in a romantic partner or friendship?
C. Why do people sometimes behave differently in a group setting than they do on their own?
D. Have attitudes toward gay marriage in the U.S. changed in the last five years?

 

4. Social psychology is all of the following except 


A. a science addressing a diverse array of topics.
B. the study of how people think, feel, and behave.
C. a compilation of anecdotal observations and case studies.
D. an approach applying the scientific method of systematic observation, description, and measurement.

 

5. Social psychology is primarily concerned with the ways in which 


A. group factors contribute to the functioning of social institutions.
B. unconscious forces influence conscious motivations and desires.
C. specific personality characteristics predict behavior across situations.
D. individuals think, feel, and behave with regard to others.

 

6. Social psychology differs from history and philosophy in its 


A. attention to the scientific method.
B. concern with human behavior.
C. greater focus on cultural influences.
D. more narrow and refined bandwidth of interest.

 

7. Which of the following is not considered an important part of the scientific method? 


A. Systematic observation
B. Variable Definition
C. Intuition
D. Measurement

 

8. Anita wants to spend her career studying the factors that predict whether the members of a couple are satisfied with their marriage. If she chooses to do so as a social psychologist, it is likely that her pursuit will 


A. focus more on people's thoughts than on their actual behavior.
B. emphasize the importance of different personality types, such as “fun-loving” and “open to new experiences.”
C. examine couples rather than individuals as the unit of analysis.
D. include systematic observation and measurement of couples.

 

9. Mariano is interested in how the diversity of a group affects its performance. If Mariano is a social psychologist, it is unlikely that he will 


A. conduct experiments that compare diverse and non-diverse groups.
B. focus more on the details of recent Supreme Court rulings regarding affirmative action than examining the actual behavior of groups.
C. be interested in the thoughts as well as behaviors of people within those groups.
D. expect the perceived influence of diversity among the members of the groups to be as influential as the actual changes in performance caused by diverse demographics.

 

10. Which of the following is a central part of the definition of social psychology? 


A. It uses historical events as its primary source of data.
B. It assumes that thoughts and behaviors are influenced by other people.
C. It focuses more on the behavior of groups than on that of individuals.
D. It emphasizes the solitary nature of human behavior.

 

11. Which of the following statements about social psychology is false


A. A goal of social psychology is to develop general principles that describe human behavior.
B. An assumption of social psychology is that only social factors influence human behavior.
C. Social psychology relies on the scientific method to learn about human behavior.
D. Social psychology is concerned with the way in which the imagined presence of others influences individuals.

 

12. A social psychologist would be least likely to conduct a study examining the effect of 


A. sleep on concentration ability.
B. temperature on highway shootings.
C. political attitudes on friendship formation.
D. academic performance on self-esteem.

 

13. Sarunas is a social psychologist. Of the following studies, he is probably most interested in reading about one demonstrating the effects of 


A. attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction.
B. immigration patterns on stock market activity.
C. distraction on attention to a visual display.
D. narcotic substances on neurotransmitter activity in the brain.

 

14. Which of the following is not an important theme in social psychological research? 


A. The power of the situation
B. The role of the individual's cultural background
C. The motivation to be liked
D. The role of unconscious drives

 

15. Courses in social psychology are often required for students majoring in which of the following fields? 


A. Education
B. Journalism
C. Business
D. all of these.

 

16. The study conducted by Fein et al. (2007) on perceptions of a political debate focuses on 


A. how a candidate's nonverbal behaviors influences viewers' evaluations of his performance.
B. differences in viewers' perceptions of male versus female candidates.
C. cross-cultural differences in political preferences.
D. the influence of other people's reactions on viewers' perceptions of candidate performance.

 

17. The results of the political debate study conducted by Fein et al. (2007) indicate that 


A. participants rated a candidate more positively when they heard him make jokes during the debate.
B. a candidate's efforts to make jokes during the debate did not influence participants' ratings of his performance.
C. a candidate making jokes during the debate led participants to like him more when people in the audience laughed at those jokes.
D. a candidate making jokes during the debate led participants to like him less when no one in the audience laughed at those jokes.

 

18. Extrapolating from the Fein et al. (2007)  study of political debates, when a cable TV channel shows viewers at home real-time data regarding the debate perceptions of a focus group 


A. the attitudes of the viewers at home are not likely to be influenced.
B. the attitudes of the viewers at home are likely to change in the same direction as the attitudes of the focus group.
C. the attitudes of the viewers at home are likely to change in the opposite direction of the attitudes of the focus group.
D. viewers at home are likely to get distracted and confused.

 

19. Which of the following conclusions regarding the Fein et al. (2007) study of political debates is false


A. Participants were more influenced by other people's reactions to the candidate than by what the candidate actually said.
B. The reactions of other people to the candidate were only influential when those people were in the same room as the participant.
C. The factors in our social context that influence our perceptions and behaviors are often subtle.
D. Telling jokes during a political debate is risky because the payoff in terms of audience perception is small and the potential costs are great.

 

20. Sociologists tend to study behavior at the _____ level, whereas social psychologists study behavior at the _____ level. 


A. group; individual
B. interpersonal; cultural
C. specific; general
D. social; cognitive

 

21. Sociologists studying the effects of media violence would be more likely than social psychologists to 


A. conduct experiments manipulating the amount of media violence viewed by participants.
B. assess changes in television availability and in murder rates over the last thirty years.
C. concern themselves with situational variables that moderate the effects of media violence on its viewers.
D. focus on the types of individuals who choose to view media violence.

 

22. To examine the relationship between economic conditions and violence, Gunther compares the murder rates for counties with different median incomes. Gunther's research best characterizes what field of study? 


A. Social psychology
B. Clinical psychology
C. Personality psychology
D. Sociology

 

23. To examine the relationship between temperature and violence, Priti manipulates the thermostat in her laboratory while participants are engaged in a military simulation game. She then looks at the effect of this manipulation on their aggressive behavior during the game, comparing participants in the “warm” condition to those in the “comfortable” condition. Priti's research best characterizes what field of study? 


A. Sociology
B. Social psychology
C. Clinical psychology
D. Personality psychology

 

24. Brad is a social psychologist. Marion is a sociologist. Which of the following research questions is most likely of interest to both of them? 


A. How do societal and immediate factors influence racial differences in academic achievement?
B. How does positive and negative feedback impact conceptions of the self?
C. Do different socioeconomic groups express different political attitudes?
D. Can an authority figure influence people to act in ways that they normally would not?

 

25. Which of the following statements concerning social psychology and sociology is false


A. Sociologists tend to study societal level variables, whereas social psychologists focus on more specific and immediate variables.
B. Social psychology studies human behavior at the level of the individual, whereas sociology studies human behavior at the group level.
C. Social psychologists and sociologists often study the same issues and publish in the same journals.
D. Sociologists are more likely than social psychologists to rely on experimentation to study human behavior.

 

26. When comparing social psychology to sociology, a major difference is the 


A. target populations studied.
B. number of variables explored.
C. focus on the individual or the group.
D. emphasis on how social context affects behavior.

 

27. Marilyn is interested in whether schizophrenic individuals tend to interpret verbal feedback from others as negative even if it is positive. It might be said that Marilyn is doing research at the intersection of social psychology and 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. sociology.
C. personality psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

 

28. Although related to other fields, social psychology is distinct in that its emphasis is on 


A. understanding the immediate situational factors that influence human behavior.
B. classifying and treating psychological disorders.
C. identifying individual characteristics that are relatively stable across time.
D. describing the relationship between human behavior and societal variables.

 

29. Which of the following is true regarding social psychology and clinical psychology? 


A. Researchers in both fields might conduct studies investigating outcomes such as anxiety or depression.
B. Research in social psychology utilized the scientific method, whereas research in clinical psychology does not.
C. Both fields are primarily concerned with the underlying causes of atypical behavior.
D. Psychologists in both fields must become certified in therapy aimed towards helping individuals with mental illness.

 

30. Research concerning how depressed and non-depressed individuals process social information is at the intersection of what two fields of study? 


A. Personality psychology and cognitive psychology
B. Social psychology and clinical psychology
C. Social psychology and sociology
D. Clinical psychology and sociology

 

31. Which of the following branches of psychology is most interested in “the power of the situation”? 


A. Clinical psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Personality psychology
D. Social psychology

 

32. What distinguishes social psychology from other specialties in psychology is its 


A. use of the scientific method in research design.
B. emphasis on correlational research design.
C. attention to the influence of situational context on behavior.
D. willingness to consider cross-cultural differences in human behavior and cognition.

 

33. Astrid has developed a 12-item questionnaire to help her identify individuals who tend to be skeptical of authority figures across different situations. Astrid is most likely a _____ psychologist. 


A. cognitive
B. social
C. clinical
D. personality

 

34. The interaction between individual characteristics and situational constraints on the way people behave best reflects the intersection of 


A. cognitive and personality psychology.
B. personality and social psychology.
C. social and clinical psychology.
D. clinical and developmental psychology.

 

35. Hyunwoo believes that image-oriented ads will be more persuasive for individuals concerned with the way they appear to others, whereas ads that stress product quality will be more effective for individuals who are less concerned with their public image. This belief represents the intersection of what two fields of study? 


A. Social psychology and clinical psychology
B. Social psychology and cognitive psychology
C. Social psychology and personality psychology
D. Social psychology and sociology

 

36. Diane is interested in whether women with nurturing personalities are more reliable friends both inside and outside the workplace. Rebecca is interested in the hypothesis that women tend to be more nurturing outside the workplace because others expect them to be nurturing. It is likely that Diane is a _____ psychologist and Rebecca is a _____ psychologist. 


A. social; personality
B. clinical; personality
C. personality; clinical
D. personality; social

 

37. Which of the following research questions does not involve the interaction of social and cognitive psychology? 


A. What situational factors influence whether someone interprets an event as an emergency and then makes a decision to offer help to a stranger?
B. How does injury to a particular part of the brain influence the ability to form new memories?
C. How does a threat to self-esteem influence people's ability to pay attention to complex stimuli?
D. How do stereotypes influence our memory of social interactions?

 

38. Antoine investigates the extent to which depressed individuals have difficulty forming accurate memories of social interactions, particularly when those interactions are stressful. His research is best described as being at the intersection of 


A. personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology.
B. cognitive, social, and personality psychology.
C. social, clinical, and cognitive psychology.
D. clinical, personality, and social psychology.

 

39. Which of the following “common sense” findings is indeed true


A. Most of us expect beautiful people to be unintelligent.
B. Playing violent video games is a safe way to release aggressive tendencies.
C. People come to like an activity more when they are given a large reward for engaging in it.
D. People tend to overestimate the extent to which others agree with their points of view.

 

40. It could be argued that social psychology supplements common sense about human behavior in all of the following ways except that 


A. social psychology tests commonsense assumptions using scientific methods.
B. social psychology addresses many of the same issues about which people have intuitions.
C. social psychological theories are as broad in scope as common sense.
D. social psychological findings tend to support most intuitive beliefs about human behavior.

 

41. Social psychological research is a necessary endeavor because our commonsense intuitions 


A. tend to be very unstable.
B. often contradict each other.
C. are not as shared by other people as we think.
D. are generally accurate but are held with little confidence.

 

42. Social psychology differs from common sense in that 


A. common sense tends to produce more accurate knowledge about human behavior than social psychology.
B. common sense captures the full complexity of human behavior.
C. social psychology is far more intuitive than common sense.
D. social psychology relies on the scientific method to test its theories.

 

43. The field of social psychology emerged as a distinct discipline around the turn of the 


A. 17th century.
B. 18th century.
C. 19th century.
D. 20th century.

 

44. Ringelmann and Triplett are best labeled as 


A. the first researchers to explore conformity.
B. sociologists who established social psychology as a distinct discipline.
C. pioneers in the field of social cognition.
D. the founders of social psychology.

 

45. Among the following social psychologists, who was one of the original founders of social psychology? 


A. Norman Triplett
B. Stanley Milgram
C. Michael Norton
D. Philip Zimbardo

 

46. Which of the following people is credited with publishing the first research article in social psychology? 


A. Max Ringelmann
B. Norman Triplett
C. Floyd Allport
D. John Haharwood

 

47. Blaine works in a factory producing car stereos. He notices that workers produce more stereos by the end of the day when they work together in the same room than when they work in separate rooms. His observation is consistent with a classic study conducted by which of the following classic researchers? 


A. Lewin
B. Asch
C. Triplett
D. Sherif

 

48. “Founders of social psychology” Norman Triplett and Max Ringelmann both did research examining 


A. the influence groups exert on their members.
B. the impact of the presence of others on performance.
C. how behaviors are shaped by perceptions.
D. the impact of different leadership strategies on group performance.

 

49. Which of the following events is regarded as having established social psychology as a distinct field of study? 


A. The publication of the first three textbooks in social psychology
B. The publication of the first research article in social psychology
C. The formation of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
D. The introduction of the interactionist perspective to the field of psychology

 

50. Floyd Allport's social psychology textbook, published in 1924, is credited with 


A. establishing the field's emphasis on the scientific method.
B. imbuing the field with a cross-cultural orientation.
C. introducing the major theories of social psychology.
D. bridging the “hot” and “cold” perspectives on behavior and cognition.

 

51. Which of the following people did not author one of social psychology's first textbooks? 


A. William McDougall
B. Muzafer Sherif
C. Edward Ross
D. Floyd Allport

 

52. If a student wants to find the first source that established social psychology as a separate field with an emphasis on experimentation, he or she should probably read 


A. Allport's (1924) text.
B. Ringelmann's (1913) article.
C. McDougall's (1908) text.
D. Triplett's (1897–1898) article.

 

53. According to your textbook, one of the people who had the greatest impact on the developing field of social psychology was not a psychologist. Who was this person? 


A. Plato
B. Charles Lindbergh
C. Adolf Hitler
D. Jackie Robinson

 

54. Which historical event sparked great interest in and gave shape to the field of social psychology? 


A. The Great Depression
B. The use of two atomic bombs by the United States during World War II
C. The Nazi Holocaust during World War II
D. The American Civil Rights Movement

 

55. Of the following important figures in the history of social psychology, who most explicitly emphasized application of the field to social problems in society? 


A. Gordon Allport
B. Fritz Heider
C. Max Ringelmann
D. Muzafer Sherif

 

56. Which of the following classic investigations is not thought to have arisen from the researcher's attempt to understand events in Nazi Germany? 


A. Adorno's research on prejudice
B. Triplett's research on performance in groups
C. Milgram's study of destructive obedience
D. Lewin's research on conservation

 

57. Which of the following is least characteristic of research in social psychology between the 1930s and 1950s? 


A. An emphasis on the application of social psychology to practical concerns
B. An integration of social and cognitive processes that determine behavior
C. Attention to the topics of conformity and prejudice
D. The use of experimentation in research

 

58. Which social psychologist is credited with demonstrating that complex social processes could be studied scientifically? 


A. Sherif
B. F. Allport
C. Heider
D. Lewin
E. Allport

 

59. The work of Muzafer Sherif was important for the development of social psychology because he 


A. demonstrated the interaction between personality characteristics and situational factors.
B. developed professional associations for social psychologists.
C. showed that complex social behavior could be examined scientifically.
D. helped to find solutions to the crisis in the field during the 1960s and 1970s.

 

60. Muzafer Sherif's research was crucial for the development of social psychology because it 


A. introduced the idea of cognitive dissonance.
B. marked the beginning of the pluralistic approach that continues to characterize the field.
C. firmly established the importance of an interactionist perspective.
D. demonstrated the feasibility of studying complex social issues in a rigorous, scientific manner.

 

61. Which of the following is not one of the fundamental principles of social psychology established by Lewin? 


A. Behavior depends on how we perceive and interpret the world around us.
B. Behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and the environment.
C. Social psychology should be applied to important, practical issues.
D. Behavior should be conceptualized as an interaction of cognition and motivation.

 

62. Jack and his girlfriend Diane dine out about three times a week. Jack believes that they hardly ever dine out, whereas Diane thinks they dine out all the time. This illustrates what important theme in social psychology? 


A. Behavior is a function of the interaction between a person and his or her environment.
B. Different people can see the same situation very differently.
C. Complex social behaviors can be studied using the scientific method.
D. Social psychological theories can be applied to the solution of real-world problems.

 

63. According to the interactionist perspective, behavior is a result of the interaction between 


A. motivation and cognition.
B. introverts and extraverts.
C. personality and situations.
D. theoretical and practical concerns.

 

64. By stressing both internal differences among individuals and differences among external situations, the interactionist perspective is an approach combining 


A. personality psychology with social psychology.
B. social psychology with clinical psychology.
C. cognitive psychology with social psychology.
D. social psychology with sociology.

 

65. An emphasis on experiments addressing the interaction of individuals and their social context is particularly clear in the writings of 


A. Rich Petty and John Cacioppo.
B. Max Ringelmann and Norman Triplett.
C. Norman Triplett and Kurt Lewin.
D. Kurt Lewin and Floyd Allport.

 

66. Phoebe is a graduate student in social psychology who will only agree to conducting research that will help address an ongoing social problem. Phoebe's desire is most consistent with the philosophies of which of the following pairs of individuals? 


A. Gordon Allport and Floyd Allport
B. Floyd Allport and Kurt Lewin
C. Kurt Lewin and Fritz Heider
D. Fritz Heider and Gordon Allport

 

67. Which of the following is true regarding Kurt Lewin? 


A. His interactionist perspective argues that human behavior is mostly a function of situational pressures.
B. His push for practical research was met with great resistance in the early days of social psychology.
C. He was the first to test social psychological hypotheses in a scientific manner.
D. He was instrumental in generating research on how groups function.

 

68. Lewin's research concerning both how to promote economical and nutritious eating habits, and what kinds of leaders elicit the best work from group members, was important in establishing which of the following? 


A. Different topics require different research strategies.
B. Social psychology could be used to understand and help solve practical problems.
C. Early theories in social psychology were often historically and culturally limited.
D. Social psychologists may unwittingly influence the behavior of research participants.

 

69. Because of his research on practical issues, such as the research he conducted in the 1940s concerning promotion of more economical and nutritious eating habits, Kurt Lewin could be considered one of the founders of 


A. evolutionary social psychology.
B. psychoneuroimmunology.
C. “hot” theories of social psychology.
D. applied social psychology.

 

70. Mona would like to understand the interactionist perspective. She has enough time to skim two textbooks. She should probably read one textbook in social psychology and one in 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. personality psychology.

 

71. Which of the following best illustrates Lewin's interactionist perspective? 


A. Sally is a very creative kind of person who likes to build things.
B. Jerry only works because he receives a very large income.
C. Rikki is usually shy, but at work she appears to be quite outgoing.
D. Maury gives money to charities because he wants other people to think he is very generous.

 

72. Abe subscribes to a psychoanalytic view of human behavior. Abe's view probably differs from that of Kurt Lewin in that Abe is more likely to emphasize the power of 


A. external rewards.
B. internal motives.
C. situational factors.
D. interpersonal relationships.

 

73. Galen studies stereotypes and prejudice; Dan studies how people make attributions about others' behavior. Galen and Dan probably feel particular gratitude to _____ and _____, respectively, for helping to establish these areas in social psychology. 


A. Asch; G. Allport
B. G. Allport, Heider
C. Heider; Sherif
D. Sherif; Asch

 

74. Suppose that research on how people make attributions about others' behavior was linked to the way in which people compare themselves with others. This would best represent an intersection of the work done by which of the following pairs of social psychologists? 


A. Festinger and Hovland
B. Hovland and Asch
C. Asch and Heider
D. Heider and Festinger

 

75. Thibaut and Kelley share Heider's interest in 


A. the roots of prejudice.
B. people's desire to sustain consistency.
C. the perceptions people have in relationships.
D. applying their research to understanding propaganda.

 

76. Elliot is interested in how people cope with holding two thoughts that are not consistent with each other. He would do best to read the writings of which of the following pairs of social psychologists? 


A. Allport and Asch
B. Asch and Heider
C. Heider and Festinger
D. Festinger and Milgram

 

77. Which of the following is correctly matched with its founder? 


A. Attribution theory; Heider
B. Social comparison theory; Triplett
C. Social cognition; Festinger
D. Cognitive dissonance theory; Asch

 

78. Hovland and his colleagues are best known for their research concerning 


A. attribution theory.
B. stereotypes and prejudice.
C. interpersonal relationships.
D. attitudes and persuasion.

 

79. Dimitri would like to read about social psychological research on conformity. He should look at the research of 


A. Asch.
B. Thibaut and Kelley.
C. Adorno.
D. Heider.

 

80. Research on the social psychological underpinnings of prejudice might be said to have its roots in research by 


A. Adorno and Allport.
B. Allport and Asch.
C. Asch and Festinger.
D. Festinger and Adorno.

 

81. One thing that Heider and Festinger have in common is that they were both concerned with 


A. why prejudice develops.
B. how individuals behave in groups.
C. how people resolve inconsistencies.
D. why people conform to social norms.

 

82. Much of the debate in social psychology during the period of “Confidence and Crisis” occurred in reaction to 


A. the usefulness of applied research.
B. the use of laboratory experiments.
C. new technological developments in the research lab.
D. Lewin's interactionist perspective.

 

83. The reference to social psychology in the 1960s and 1970s as being in the midst of “Confidence and Crisis” reflects an expansion in the types of issues studied by researchers, as well as increased criticism that largely came from 


A. sociologists.
B. fellow social psychologists.
C. the general public.
D. the popular media.

 

84. Which of the following was not a criticism of laboratory experimentation in the 1960s and 1970s? 


A. Experiments were sometimes unethical.
B. Experimenters' expectations might influence the results.
C. The theories being tested in the laboratory were often historically and culturally limited.
D. Experiments did not allow researchers to draw conclusions about the causal relationship between variables.

 

85. Which of the following represented a critique of social psychology in the 1960s and 1970s? 


A. The discipline failed to address topics of social relevance.
B. It failed to distinguish itself from other fields of psychology.
C. Researchers had not yet agreed upon a conventional methodology.
D. The findings were limited to current historical circumstances.

 

86. Mel criticized the field of social psychology during the 1960s and 1970s. It is likely that Mel despaired about the inability of social psychological researchers to do all of the following except 


A. suggest possible solutions to everyday social concerns.
B. acknowledge their role in artificially producing the results of their studies.
C. consider the cultural context in which their findings were obtained.
D. design ethical experimental contexts.

 

87. Arguably, the most famous research in social psychology focused on the situational factors influencing obedience to authority and was conducted by 


A. F. Allport.
B. G. Allport
C. Festinger.
D. none of these.

 

88. During the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists who favored laboratory experiments rebuffed critics by arguing that 


A. critics' concerns regarding experimenter bias were exaggerated and misplaced.
B. it did not matter that some studies were unethical because the benefits of running these experiments outweighed the costs.
C. experimental studies were easier to conduct than non-experimental studies.
D. the theoretical principles being tested in the lab were widely applicable across eras and cultures.

 

89. Social psychologists reacted to critiques of the field in the 1960s and 1970s by doing all of the following except 


A. adopting more rigorous and formalized ethical standards.
B. paying more attention to cross-cultural differences in cognition and behavior.
C. denouncing experiments as unacceptably artificial.
D. developing more stringent procedures to avoid the effects of experimenter bias.

 

90. Social psychology in the period from the middle 1970s through the 1990s can best be described as a time of 


A. confidence and crisis.
B. social activism.
C. pluralism.
D. interactionism.

 

91. When Taka is teaching his social psychology class, he emphasizes that the field must encompass a range of research techniques and cultural perspectives if it is to flourish. Taka's emphasis reflects a(n) 


A. contextualist orientation.
B. empirical approach.
C. “hot” approach to studying social behavior.
D. pluralistic orientation.

 

92. A pluralistic approach to social psychology 


A. encourages research outside of controlled settings.
B. emphasizes the motivational more than the cognitive underpinnings of behavior.
C. has been supplanted by other approaches in the past thirty years.
D. limits the kinds of topics that social psychologists can study.

 

93. Pluralism in social psychology can be seen in all of the following areas except the 


A. procedures used to secure government funding.
B. integration of “hot” and “cold” perspectives.
C. methods social psychologists use to study behavior.
D. inclusion of various cultural perspectives.

 

94. Social psychologists use a multi-method approach to study behavior because 


A. shifting sentiments in the field lead different methodologies to fall out of and back into favor.
B. different topics require different types of research strategies.
C. some methods are more expensive than others.
D. none of these.

 

95. A multi-method approach to the study of social psychological phenomena is advantageous because it 


A. allows researchers to study many more variables within a single experiment.
B. increases confidence in the research findings.
C. requires fewer research participants.
D. permits multiple interpretations of the same result.

 

96. Marta is interested in how behavior is influenced by the way people think about their social world. Marta subscribes to the _____ perspective in social psychology. 


A. “cold”
B. interactionist
C. multi-cultural
D. cross-cultural

 

97. The “hot” perspective in social psychology emphasizes _____, whereas the “cold” perspective emphasizes _____. 


A. positive information; negative information
B. feelings; behavior
C. facts; motives
D. emotion; cognition

 

98. Fernando studies the relationship between emotions and behavior in social settings. Fernando's research epitomizes the ____ perspective in social psychology. 


A. pluralistic
B. interactionist
C. “cold”
D. “hot”

 

99. A contemporary social psychologist studies both “hot” and “cold” explanations for social behavior. This approach is an example of 


A. the cognitive revolution.
B. applied social psychology.
C. pluralistic orientation.
D. a cross-cultural perspective.

 

100. Benny wants to adopt both a “hot” and “cold” perspective in his research on why married couples get divorced. Which of the following best exemplifies his approach? 


A. He wants to understand what motivates people to stay in marriages that they know from past experience will only get worse.
B. He wants to study the difference between passive and active aggression in marriages.
C. He wants to investigate how spur-of-the-moment marriage problems are solved relative to ongoing problems.
D. He wants to determine whether simple factors, such as mismatches in attitudes, can predict breakups better than communication patterns.

 

101. Jeff is a social psychologist who favors the “cold” approach to understanding human behavior. He is conducting research on why people fail to use condoms even when they know that they can reduce their risk of obtaining HIV by doing so. Jeff is least likely to devote his attention to people's 


A. drive to avoid this inconsistency.
B. ability to detect the inconsistency.
C. awareness of the actual risk of unprotected sex.
D. memory for past cases in which they have behaved in a manner inconsistent with their attitudes.

 

102. Which of the following would best represent the “hot” perspective in social psychology? 


A. A good mood can foster attitude change.
B. Distraction can lead to overdependence on first impressions.
C. Failure to recognize that a situation is an emergency can interfere with helping.
D. People can be genetically programmed to aggress against others.

 

103. Which of the following is not identified by your textbook as an influential factor in today's social psychology? 


A. New technological advances
B. Behavioral genetics
C. The split between “red” and “blue” states in the U.S.
D. The Internet

 

104. All of the following are characteristic of the field of social psychology today except 


A. an interest in the way cognition and motivation interact.
B. an emphasis on the role of culture in shaping behavior.
C. an integration of biological and social perspectives.
D. a concern for the lack of ethical standards in research.

 

105. Social cognition can be best described as the study of 


A. how we perceive, remember, and interpret information about the self and others.
B. how cultural differences are manifested in social behavior.
C. the extent to which social behavior is rooted in the chemistry of the brain.
D. the interaction of people and new “thinking” computers.

 

106. Social psychologists interested in how we learn, store, and recall information about other people are interested in the subfield of 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. behavioral genetics.
C. social cognition.
D. multicultural psychology.

 

107. A contemporary social psychologist who studies stereotyping is likely to focus on 


A. controlled, but not automatic processes.
B. automatic, but not controlled processes.
C. both controlled and automatic processes.
D. none of these.

 

108. Social neuroscience is best described as the study of 


A. the evolution of the brain.
B. the interplay between genes and the environment.
C. the social functioning of neurons.
D. the interaction of social and neural processes.

 

109. Which of the following is concerned with how the brain influences social behavior? 


A. Evolutionary psychology
B. Social cognition
C. Social neuroscience
D. Behavioral genetics

 

110. Which of the following questions would be of most interest to a social psychologist who studies behavioral genetics? 


A. To what extent are attitudes inherited?
B. What brain structures are involved in describing the self?
C. Does high self-esteem help people to resist disease?
D. What role does testosterone play in aggression?

 

111. Which of the following statements regarding recent advances in behavioral genetics is false


A. These developments have led to increased attention to the role of genes in processes of interpersonal attraction and mate selection.
B. These developments are of interest to clinical but not social psychologists.
C. These developments raise questions regarding the extent to which some social behaviors, such as aggression, reflect inherited traits.
D. These developments demonstrate the extent to which social psychology has become an increasingly interdisciplinary field drawing on many different perspectives.

 

112. Which of the following is true of behavioral genetics? 


A. It is a subfield of sociology.
B. It examines the extent to which behavioral tendencies may be inherited.
C. It is synonymous with evolutionary psychology.
D. It considers social experiences to have a negligible effect on behavior.

 

113. The role of natural selection processes in the development of social behavior is a concern in 


A. behavioral genetics.
B. social cognition.
C. personality psychology.
D. evolutionary psychology.

 

114. Izzy finds that when people vacate a parking spot, they do so more slowly when there is someone waiting to take their spot than if there is no one waiting. He attributes this behavior to an innate predisposition towards territoriality. It might be said that Izzy's findings represent a combination of work in social psychology and 


A. clinical psychology.
B. behavior genetics.
C. anthropology.
D. evolutionary psychology.

 

115. Kareem is trying to explain to his class the difference between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology by using altruistic behavior as an example. In order to make the distinction clear, he should probably emphasize 


A. sex differences in altruistic behavior.
B. the adaptiveness of altruistic behavior.
C. the role of social factors in producing altruistic behavior.
D. the cognitive versus motivational influences on altruistic behavior.

 

116. Fatma investigates whether the tendency for people to return favors is the result of natural selection. Fatma's research is in the area of 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. cross-cultural psychology.
C. personality psychology.
D. multicultural psychology.

 

117. Jessica and Nick are behavioral researchers. Jessica believes that her sons have been aggressive from birth because she and her husband Nick have inborn aggressive tendencies. Nick, however, believes that their sons are aggressive because throughout history it has been adaptive for men to be aggressive so that they can protect their territory and possessions. Nick's beliefs reflect the influence of _____, whereas Jessica's beliefs reflect _____. 


A. behavioral genetics; multicultural psychology
B. multicultural psychology; cross-cultural psychology
C. cross-cultural research; evolutionary psychology research
D. evolutionary psychology; behavioral genetics

 

118. Cross-cultural research regarding attitudes about the self indicate that 


A. people from individualistic cultures are more likely than people from collectivist cultures to seek out information that makes them feel good about themselves.
B. people from individualistic cultures are more likely than people from collectivist cultures to seek out information that points to a need for self-improvement.
C. people from individualistic cultures write more balanced and accurate self-descriptions than do people from collectivist cultures.
D. none of these.

 

119. Cross-cultural research by Carl Falk and colleagues (2009), in which self-ratings by Canadian and Japanese participants were compared, indicated that 


A. Canadian participants endorsed more positive traits about the self than did Japanese participants.
B. Canadian participants endorsed a more balanced and accurate self-description than did Japanese participants.
C. Canadian participants endorsed more negative traits about the self than did Japanese participants.
D. there were no significant differences in the self-descriptions endorsed by Canadian and Japanese participants.

 

120. Christine conducts cross-cultural research and Betty conducts multicultural research. Which of the following is probably true


A. Christine is more interested in discovering differences between her samples than Betty is.
B. Betty is more likely to use social psychological research methods.
C. Christine is more likely to sample individuals from many different countries.
D. Betty is more likely to find differences between her samples than Christine is.

 

121. Of the following, which best illustrates an interest in multicultural psychology? 


A. Identifying what behaviors are caused more by culture than by genetics
B. Evaluating the behavior of two different racial groups within the same country
C. Understanding the historical forces that have led to hatred between groups
D. Endorsing a “hot” perspective more than a “cold” perspective of human behavior

 

122. Virtual reality allows social psychologists to 


A. more effectively deceive research participants.
B. test questions that might otherwise be impractical or unethical.
C. scan the brain as it processes stimuli.
D. explore “hot” processes more so than “cold” processes.

 

123. Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are technologies that enable social psychologists to 


A. record research participants' true attitudes without their awareness.
B. present visual stimuli to research participants at one-hundredth of a second.
C. see images of the brain as people think, feel, and behave.
D. induce a particular mood state in people.

 

124. Which of the following is a new technology used in contemporary social psychological research? 


A. Positron emission tomography
B. Functional magnetic resonance imaging
C. Virtual reality
D. all of these.

 

125. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the relationship between the Internet and contemporary social psychology research? 


A. The Internet facilitates collaboration among researchers, but is also, in and of itself, a provocative topic for empirical inquiry.
B. The Internet has increased the number of different variables that can be studied at one time, but at the same time has led to an unfortunate increase in the cost of running psychological studies.
C. The Internet allows researchers to combat the artificiality of laboratory experiments, and increases the demographic diversity of the participant sample used in most studies.
D. The Internet is still years away from having a significant impact on the nature and topics of research in social psychology.

 

126. How does social psychology differ from each of the following: (a. sociology, (b. the other subdisciplines of psychology, and (c. the approach taken by a journalist who examines the social behaviors of various individuals? 


 


 

 


 

 

127. Max Ringelmann, Floyd Allport, and Kurt Lewin all made singularly important contributions to the development of social psychology as a field. Summarize these contributions. 


 


 

 


 

 

128. The middle of the 20th century was an important period in the establishment of social psychology as a field. Name two general themes in the topics studied by researchers of that era, and give examples. 


 


 

 


 

 

129. The field of social psychology endured significant critique in the 1960s and 1970s. What were the most important elements of this critique, and how has the field addressed them? 


 


 

 


 

 

130. Define social cognition, and explain how this subfield of social psychology developed from its early days to current times. 


 


 

 


 

 
CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY? Key


 

1. Social psychologists do not generally 


A. work in settings outside of an academic context.
B. consider the effects of external, nonsocial factors on behavior.
C. study phenomena about which commonsense beliefs are held.
D. pay more attention to group behavior than the behavior of individuals within groups.

 

2. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be most likely to study? 


A. Are crime rates different among people of higher versus lower socioeconomic status?
B. What risk factors contribute to the onset of schizophrenia?
C. Is there a link between playing violent video games and engaging in aggressive behavior?
D. Do citizens in countries with democratic governments report greater life satisfaction than citizens in countries with autocratic governments?

 

3. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be least likely to study? 


A. What kinds of persuasion techniques are the most effective in product advertising?
B. What are the most important qualities people look for in a romantic partner or friendship?
C. Why do people sometimes behave differently in a group setting than they do on their own?
D. Have attitudes toward gay marriage in the U.S. changed in the last five years?

 

4. Social psychology is all of the following except 


A. a science addressing a diverse array of topics.
B. the study of how people think, feel, and behave.
C. a compilation of anecdotal observations and case studies.
D. an approach applying the scientific method of systematic observation, description, and measurement.

 

5. Social psychology is primarily concerned with the ways in which 


A. group factors contribute to the functioning of social institutions.
B. unconscious forces influence conscious motivations and desires.
C. specific personality characteristics predict behavior across situations.
D. individuals think, feel, and behave with regard to others.

 

6. Social psychology differs from history and philosophy in its 


A. attention to the scientific method.
B. concern with human behavior.
C. greater focus on cultural influences.
D. more narrow and refined bandwidth of interest.

 

7. Which of the following is not considered an important part of the scientific method? 


A. Systematic observation
B. Variable Definition
C. Intuition
D. Measurement

 

8. Anita wants to spend her career studying the factors that predict whether the members of a couple are satisfied with their marriage. If she chooses to do so as a social psychologist, it is likely that her pursuit will 


A. focus more on people's thoughts than on their actual behavior.
B. emphasize the importance of different personality types, such as “fun-loving” and “open to new experiences.”
C. examine couples rather than individuals as the unit of analysis.
D. include systematic observation and measurement of couples.

 

9. Mariano is interested in how the diversity of a group affects its performance. If Mariano is a social psychologist, it is unlikely that he will 


A. conduct experiments that compare diverse and non-diverse groups.
B. focus more on the details of recent Supreme Court rulings regarding affirmative action than examining the actual behavior of groups.
C. be interested in the thoughts as well as behaviors of people within those groups.
D. expect the perceived influence of diversity among the members of the groups to be as influential as the actual changes in performance caused by diverse demographics.

 

10. Which of the following is a central part of the definition of social psychology? 


A. It uses historical events as its primary source of data.
B. It assumes that thoughts and behaviors are influenced by other people.
C. It focuses more on the behavior of groups than on that of individuals.
D. It emphasizes the solitary nature of human behavior.

 

11. Which of the following statements about social psychology is false


A. A goal of social psychology is to develop general principles that describe human behavior.
B. An assumption of social psychology is that only social factors influence human behavior.
C. Social psychology relies on the scientific method to learn about human behavior.
D. Social psychology is concerned with the way in which the imagined presence of others influences individuals.

 

12. A social psychologist would be least likely to conduct a study examining the effect of 


A. sleep on concentration ability.
B. temperature on highway shootings.
C. political attitudes on friendship formation.
D. academic performance on self-esteem.

 

13. Sarunas is a social psychologist. Of the following studies, he is probably most interested in reading about one demonstrating the effects of 


A. attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction.
B. immigration patterns on stock market activity.
C. distraction on attention to a visual display.
D. narcotic substances on neurotransmitter activity in the brain.

 

14. Which of the following is not an important theme in social psychological research? 


A. The power of the situation
B. The role of the individual's cultural background
C. The motivation to be liked
D. The role of unconscious drives

 

15. Courses in social psychology are often required for students majoring in which of the following fields? 


A. Education
B. Journalism
C. Business
D. all of these.

 

16. The study conducted by Fein et al. (2007) on perceptions of a political debate focuses on 


A. how a candidate's nonverbal behaviors influences viewers' evaluations of his performance.
B. differences in viewers' perceptions of male versus female candidates.
C. cross-cultural differences in political preferences.
D. the influence of other people's reactions on viewers' perceptions of candidate performance.

 

17. The results of the political debate study conducted by Fein et al. (2007) indicate that 


A. participants rated a candidate more positively when they heard him make jokes during the debate.
B. a candidate's efforts to make jokes during the debate did not influence participants' ratings of his performance.
C. a candidate making jokes during the debate led participants to like him more when people in the audience laughed at those jokes.
D. a candidate making jokes during the debate led participants to like him less when no one in the audience laughed at those jokes.

 

18. Extrapolating from the Fein et al. (2007)  study of political debates, when a cable TV channel shows viewers at home real-time data regarding the debate perceptions of a focus group 


A. the attitudes of the viewers at home are not likely to be influenced.
B. the attitudes of the viewers at home are likely to change in the same direction as the attitudes of the focus group.
C. the attitudes of the viewers at home are likely to change in the opposite direction of the attitudes of the focus group.
D. viewers at home are likely to get distracted and confused.

 

19. Which of the following conclusions regarding the Fein et al. (2007) study of political debates is false


A. Participants were more influenced by other people's reactions to the candidate than by what the candidate actually said.
B. The reactions of other people to the candidate were only influential when those people were in the same room as the participant.
C. The factors in our social context that influence our perceptions and behaviors are often subtle.
D. Telling jokes during a political debate is risky because the payoff in terms of audience perception is small and the potential costs are great.

 

20. Sociologists tend to study behavior at the _____ level, whereas social psychologists study behavior at the _____ level. 


A. group; individual
B. interpersonal; cultural
C. specific; general
D. social; cognitive

 

21. Sociologists studying the effects of media violence would be more likely than social psychologists to 


A. conduct experiments manipulating the amount of media violence viewed by participants.
B. assess changes in television availability and in murder rates over the last thirty years.
C. concern themselves with situational variables that moderate the effects of media violence on its viewers.
D. focus on the types of individuals who choose to view media violence.

 

22. To examine the relationship between economic conditions and violence, Gunther compares the murder rates for counties with different median incomes. Gunther's research best characterizes what field of study? 


A. Social psychology
B. Clinical psychology
C. Personality psychology
D. Sociology

 

23. To examine the relationship between temperature and violence, Priti manipulates the thermostat in her laboratory while participants are engaged in a military simulation game. She then looks at the effect of this manipulation on their aggressive behavior during the game, comparing participants in the “warm” condition to those in the “comfortable” condition. Priti's research best characterizes what field of study? 


A. Sociology
B. Social psychology
C. Clinical psychology
D. Personality psychology

 

24. Brad is a social psychologist. Marion is a sociologist. Which of the following research questions is most likely of interest to both of them? 


A. How do societal and immediate factors influence racial differences in academic achievement?
B. How does positive and negative feedback impact conceptions of the self?
C. Do different socioeconomic groups express different political attitudes?
D. Can an authority figure influence people to act in ways that they normally would not?

 

25. Which of the following statements concerning social psychology and sociology is false


A. Sociologists tend to study societal level variables, whereas social psychologists focus on more specific and immediate variables.
B. Social psychology studies human behavior at the level of the individual, whereas sociology studies human behavior at the group level.
C. Social psychologists and sociologists often study the same issues and publish in the same journals.
D. Sociologists are more likely than social psychologists to rely on experimentation to study human behavior.

 

26. When comparing social psychology to sociology, a major difference is the 


A. target populations studied.
B. number of variables explored.
C. focus on the individual or the group.
D. emphasis on how social context affects behavior.

 

27. Marilyn is interested in whether schizophrenic individuals tend to interpret verbal feedback from others as negative even if it is positive. It might be said that Marilyn is doing research at the intersection of social psychology and 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. sociology.
C. personality psychology.




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