Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods Tab settings established hereLearning Objectives Introduction: The Origins of Psychology, pp. 2-9



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Chapter 1

Introduction and Research Methods

Tab settings established hereLearning Objectives
Introduction: The Origins of Psychology, pp. 2-9
1. Define psychology and discuss the issues that shaped psychology’s evolution over the past century,

including the influence of philosophy and physiology.


2. Describe the roles played by Wilhelm Wundt and William James in the establishment of psychology

as a separate scientific discipline.


3. Describe the structuralist and functionalist schools of psychology, and identify their differences and their common goal.
4. Identify three early American psychologists who were students of William James or Edward Titchener,

and list their contributions to the development of psychology.


5. Describe the basic elements of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.
6. Discuss behaviorism, noting its advocates, focus, and methodology.
7. Identify the advocates of humanistic psychology, noting how this approach differs from behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
Contemporary Psychology, pp. 10-16
8. List the major perspectives in contemporary psychology, and discuss the scope of each.
9. Explain the importance of cross-cultural psychology and distinguish between individualistic and collectivistic cultures.
10. Explain the basic assumptions of the evolutionary perspective.
11. List the specialty areas in contemporary psychology, describe the focus of each, and distinguish between psychology and psychiatry.
The Scientific Method, pp. 16-21
12. List the four goals of psychology, explain the assumptions and attitudes of psychologists, and describe critical thinking.
13. Describe the scientific method, noting its four steps, and explain how a hypothesis and a theory differ.
Descriptive Methods, pp. 22-27
14. Define descriptive methods, and describe how naturalistic observation and case studies are conducted.
15. Describe survey research and list the criteria that must be met for survey results to be valid.
16. Define correlation coefficient, explain the difference between positive and negative correlations, and describe the functions and limitations of correlational research.
The Experimental Method, pp. 27-34
17. Use the experiment testing the relationship between violent video games and aggressive behavior to illustrate key terms and concepts associated with the experimental method.
18. Explain the purpose of placebo-control groups, defining expectancy effects, double-blind study, and demand characteristics.
19. Describe natural experiments and discuss the limitations of the experimental method.
20. Define a pseudoscience and explain how to recognize and evaluate pseudoscientific claims.
Ethics in Psychological Research, pp. 35-37
21. Describe the major provisions of the APA’s code of ethics for research with human and nonhuman animal subjects.
Application: Evaluating Mass Media Reports About Psychology, pp. 37-38
22. List criteria that should be used to evaluate media reports about psychological findings and topics.





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