Chapter 1 a-the Evolution of Psychology



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Chapter 1 A--The Evolution of Psychology

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Psychology's intellectual parents are the disciplines of 


A. physics and physiology.
B. philosophy and physiology.
C. chemistry and physics.
D. philosophy and chemistry.

 

2. The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is 


A. G. Stanley Hall.
B. René Descartes.
C. William James.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

3. According to historians, the "birth" of psychology occurred in 


A. 1859 in England.
B. 1879 in Germany.
C. 1883 in the United States.
D. 1909 in the United States.

 

4. The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with 


A. William James.
B. Wilhelm Wundt.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. John B. Watson.

 

5. According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of 


A. observable behavior.
B. conscious experience.
C. unconscious motivation.
D. the functions of behavior.

 

6. Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be 


A. questioning the nature of existence.
B. studying stimulus-response associations.
C. determining people's unconscious motivation for behavior.
D. examining people's awareness of their immediate experience.

 

7. According to your textbook author, one factor that contributed to both the birth of psychology in Germany and the rapid growth of psychology in the United States toward the end of the 19th century is that 


A. intellectual climates in both countries favored the development of new nonscientific approaches.
B. many American students choose to study in Germany.
C. resources were available for expansion and universities climates were open to the development of new disciplines.
D. Wilhelm Wundt was a tireless scholar who generated numerous books and articles while establishing the APA in 1892.

 

8. The two disciplines from which psychology developed were 


A. sociology and philosophy.
B. philosophy and physiology.
C. physiology and theology.
D. physiology and sociology.

 

9. While the term psychology has existed since at LEAST the early 1700s, psychology did not come to be considered a science until 


A. the 1750s.
B. the early 1800s.
C. the late 1800s.
D. the 1940s.

 

10. The "birth" of psychology as a science occurred in ____ when ____. 


A. 1859; Darwin published the theory of natural selection
B. 1879; Wundt established the first laboratory for psychological research
C. 1890; James published the textbook Principles of Psychology
D. 1900; Freud first described the unconscious

 

11. Wundt defined psychology as 


A. the scientific study of behavior.
B. the scientific study of the unconscious.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of conscious experience.

 

12. The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was 


A. John Watson.
B. William James.
C. G. Stanley Hall.
D. Edward Titchener.

 

13. The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was 


A. Sigmund Freud.
B. G. Stanley Hall.
C. William James.
D. John Watson.

 

14. The world's largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology is the 


A. World Psychology Organization.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. American Psychological Association.
D. Psychologists of North America.

 

15. Kesha is a member of the world's largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology. Kesha is MOST likely a member of the 


A. World Psychology Organization.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. Psychologists of North America.
D. American Psychological Association.

 

16. Which of the followings is NOT one of the major contributions of G. Stanley Hall? 


A. He established the first American psychological journal.
B. He established the first research laboratory for psychology in America.
C. He received the first Ph.D. in psychology in America.
D. He was the first president of the American Psychological Association.

 

17. The psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in America, founded the first American psychological journal, and was the first president of the American Psychological Association was 


A. G. Stanley Hall.
B. William James.
C. John Watson.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

18. In a discussion with your professor she tells you that she believes that the focus of psychological study should be to break the conscious experience into its basic elements. Which of the following historical schools of thought is your professor's idea MOST indicative of? 


A. behaviorism
B. functionalism
C. structuralism
D. psychoanalysis

 

19. The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images was 


A. humanism.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

20. Introspection was MOST likely to be used by 


A. humanist psychologists.
B. behaviorist psychologists.
C. structuralist psychologists.
D. functionalist psychologists.

 

21. Melissa is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully observe and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. Melissa is MOST likely participating in a study conducted by a 


A. humanist psychologist.
B. behaviorist psychologist.
C. structuralist psychologist.
D. psychoanalytic psychologist.

 

22. Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. humanism.

 

23. In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called 


A. introspection.
B. retrospection.
C. empiricism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

24. The method used to examine the contents of consciousness by early psychologists that involved the careful systematic self-observation of your own conscious experience is known as 


A. introspection.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. natural selection.

 

25. Wundt and Titchener believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

26. Dr. Asgaard believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as auditory processing, it is first necessary to understand all the separate component parts. Dr. Asgaard's views are MOST consistent with those of 


A. William James.
B. Ivan Pavlov.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Edward Titchener.

 

27. The "school" of psychology that states that the task of psychology is to analyze conscious experience into its basic elements is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. structuralism.

 

28. If you take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing (cold, bubbly, sweet, etc.) you would be utilizing the technique of 


A. introspection.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. empiricism.

 

29. If while watching an exquisite sunset you stop and analyze your sensations, thoughts, and feelings, you would be performing introspection as the ____ once did. 


A. structuralists
B. behaviorists
C. functionalists
D. psychoanalysts

 

30. The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was 


A. functionalism.
B. behaviorism.
C. neodynamism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

31. Dr. Lee is studying pain perception using a functionalist perspective. It is MOST likely that Dr. Lee would suggest that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain 


A. if all the component parts that make up the experience of pain are understood.
B. by observing the outward expression of pain in response to different stimuli.
C. if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.
D. if we understand the unconscious processes that initiate the sensation of pain.

 

32. Stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated with the school of psychology known as 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

33. William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was MOST heavily influenced by 


A. Charles Darwin.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. John Watson.
D. B. F. Skinner.

 

34. Dr. Yang is studying pain perception. She argues that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation. Which early school of psychology is Dr. Yang's views MOST like? 


A. structuralism
B. behaviorism
C. functionalism
D. humanism

 

35. Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are MOST consistent with 


A. the behaviorist approach to psychology.
B. the functionalist approach to psychology.
C. the structuralist approach to psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to psychology.

 

36. Dr. Rice believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the purpose that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. Dr. Rice's views are MOST consistent with those of 


A. Edward Titchener.
B. Ivan Pavlov.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. William James.

 

37. The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts was 


A. existential awareness.
B. stream of consciousness.
C. transcendental meditation.
D. phenomenological flow.

 

38. Of the following, the concept that is LEAST closely associated with functionalism is 


A. mental testing.
B. stream of consciousness.
C. adapting to the environment.
D. elements of consciousness.

 

39. Which of the following was LEAST likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists? 


A. mental testing
B. development in children
C. sensation and perception
D. the effectiveness of educational practices

 

40. The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was 


A. Mary Calkins.
B. Margaret Washburn.
C. Leta Hollingworth.
D. Anna Freud.

 

41. The early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology was 


A. structuralism.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. pragmatism.

 

42. Although functionalism faded away as a theoretical force in psychology, historians credit it with two important contributions to the discipline that includes the development of 


A. behaviorism and applied psychology.
B. psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
C. behaviorism and introspection.
D. women psychologists and applied psychology.

 

43. James believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

44. Functionalism was founded by 


A. John Watson.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. William James.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

45. The ____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose. 


A. behaviorists
B. humanists
C. functionalists
D. structuralists

 

46. William James was significantly influenced in his approach to studying psychology by 


A. Aristotle.
B. Plato.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Charles Darwin.

 

47. Darwin's theory of natural selection had a significant influence on the development of 


A. functionalism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. structuralism.
D. behaviorism.

 

48. The "school" of psychology that has a practical focus and is interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the world is 


A. psychoanalysis.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. structuralism.

 

49. The concept of "stream of consciousness" is associated with 


A. John Watson.
B. William James.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

50. The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of 


A. Carl Rogers.
B. Wilhelm Wundt.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

51. Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called 


A. behavior modification.
B. primal therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. rational-emotive therapy.

 

52. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Many times people are unaware of the unconscious motivations that drive their overt actions." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. B. F. Skinner.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Wilhelm Wundt.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

53. Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by 


A. unrealistic demands from family and friends.
B. personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level.
C. genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way.
D. conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints.

 

54. The major departure of Freud's position from prevailing viewpoints around the early 1900s was that he 


A. saw abnormal behavior as resulting from biological causes.
B. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.
C. proposed the existence of free will.
D. emphasized environmental forces on behavior.

 

55. People resisted psychoanalysis mainly because of its emphasis on 


A. unconscious motivation.
B. introspection.
C. the role of heredity.
D. stimulus-response associations.

 

56. People resisted psychoanalysis because of the suggestion that people are not masters of their own minds and because of Freud's proposal that behavior is influenced by how people cope with 


A. unconscious motivation.
B. sexual urges.
C. heredity.
D. stimulus-response associations.

 

57. Liserel is a graduate student who believes that the best approach to the study of psychology is to focus exclusively on the unconscious determinants of behavior. Liserel's views toward the study of psychology match those of 


A. the psychoanalytic perspective.
B. the cognitive perspective.
C. the humanistic perspective.
D. the structuralist perspective.

 

58. The idea that you have thoughts, memories, and desires beyond the control of conscious rational processes originated with 


A. John Watson.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

59. Which of the following statements about Freud's psychoanalytic theory is MOST accurate? 


A. Freud's views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology.
B. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology.
C. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.
D. Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology.

 

60. Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by 


A. studying observable behavior.
B. analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. studying the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

61. You act impulsively, then wonder why. Freud would tell you that your behavior was influenced by your 


A. unconscious mind.
B. conscious mind.
C. inability to think quickly.
D. lack of rational thought.

 

62. Which of the following did not have a significant influence on the development of Freud's theory? 


A. knowledge gained as a result of working with patients
B. the results of his experimental research
C. knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires
D. his observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make

 

63. Freud believed that we are often not the masters of our own mind because of 


A. introspection.
B. the physiological functioning of our bodies.
C. environmental influences acting on us.
D. the unconscious.

 

64. Which of the following was not one of the reasons why psychoanalysis was controversial when it was first developed? 


A. its focus on the unconscious
B. its emphasis on sexual issues
C. its focus on humans
D. its lack of experimental research

 

65. While psychoanalysis was originally ____, with the passage of time many psychoanalytic concepts came to be ____ by mainstream psychology. 


A. controversial; rejected
B. controversial; accepted
C. accepted; rejected
D. only accepted by behaviorists; accepted

 

66. The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was 


A. John B. Watson.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. G. Stanley Hall.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

67. The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

68. The school of psychology that suggests psychologists should study only what can be objectively observed is 


A. humanism.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

69. According to a behaviorist, an overt (observable) response or activity by an organism is 


A. behavior.
B. the unconscious.
C. behaviorism.
D. a stimulus.

 

70. With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree? 


A. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
B. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
C. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual's interpretation of experience.
D. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.

 

71. John B. Watson argued that psychologists should 


A. use the method of introspection to establish the structural aspects of consciousness.
B. be concerned with the purposiveness (function) of behavior.
C. confine their work to people who are diagnosed as mentally ill.
D. abandon the study of consciousness.

 

72. According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by 


A. heredity.
B. personal motives.
C. the environment.
D. unconscious desires.

 

73. Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements? 


A. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
B. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
C. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.
D. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.

 

74. Response is to stimulus as 


A. pain is to cut.
B. light is to moth.
C. joke is to laugh.
D. pen is to paper.

 

75. Another name for the behavioral approach in psychology is 


A. stimulus-response psychology.
B. structuralism.
C. applied psychology.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

76. Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison's views are MOST consistent with the 


A. behaviorist view of psychology.
B. structuralist view of psychology.
C. functionalist view of psychology.
D. psychoanalytic view of psychology.

 

77. Lynelle is crying because her brother just punched her in the arm. Lynelle's mother asks her what she did just before she was punched. In looking for a link between her daughter's actions and her son's response to those actions, Lynelle's mother is using the type of analysis that would be typical in 


A. the structuralist approach to the study of psychology.
B. the functionalist approach to the study of psychology.
C. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to the study of psychology.

 

78. The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology was 


A. behaviorism.
B. structuralism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

79. The type of psychologist who would be MOST likely to study rats in a laboratory setting would be a 


A. behaviorist.
B. structuralist.
C. psychoanalyst.
D. Gestalt psychologist.

 

80. Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would MOST likely be considered a 


A. behaviorist.
B. structuralist.
C. psychoanalyst.
D. Gestalt psychologist.

 

81. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the main advantage of conducting psychological research with animals? 


A. It is much cheaper to conduct research on animals than on humans.
B. In their biological makeup, animals are fundamentally similar to humans.
C. With research on animals, there are no ethical issues to be concerned with.
D. A researcher can exert more control over an animal than over a human subject.

 

82. Behaviorism was founded by 


A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. John Watson.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

83. Watson believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

84. Watson defined psychology as 


A. the scientific study of behavior.
B. the scientific study of the unconscious.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of conscious experience.

 

85. The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of 


A. psychoanalysis.
B. functionalism.
C. structuralism.
D. behaviorism.

 

86. Which psychological approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology? 


A. psychoanalytic theory
B. behaviorism
C. structuralism
D. evolutionary psychology

 

87. Which of the following "schools" of psychology was MOST influential in increasing the use of animals in psychological research? 


A. humanism
B. animalism
C. behaviorism
D. structuralism

 

88. If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist he would MOST likely believe that the cause of a child's disruptive behavior in school is the result of 


A. a learning disability.
B. his genetic inheritance.
C. his prior experiences.
D. a combination of his genetic inheritance and his prior experiences.

 

89. A group of psychologists is conducting research to determine whether people eat more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashing lights. These scientists MOST likely follow 


A. the behavioral perspective.
B. the psychodynamic perspective.
C. the humanistic perspective.
D. the functionalist perspective.

 

90. Marissa wants to study people's emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that she should focus on observable behaviors, rather than internal states in her study. Bernard's views are MOST similar to those found in 


A. the psychodynamic perspective.
B. the evolutionary perspective.
C. the behavioral perspective.
D. the biological perspective.

 

91. Caroline conducts research in which she systematically changes some aspect of the environment and then measures changes in observable behavior. This approach to research is consistent with the basic ideas of 


A. the humanistic perspective in psychology.
B. the behavioral perspective in psychology.
C. the psychoanalytic perspective in psychology.
D. the biological perspective in psychology.

 

92. The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with 


A. behaviorism.
B. humanism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

93. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Internal states undoubtedly exist, but it is not necessary to draw inferences about unobservable states in order to understand behavior." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. William James.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Carl Rogers.

 

94. The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was 


A. Sigmund Freud.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

95. With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events? 


A. John Watson
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. Abraham Maslow

 

96. Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of 


A. behaviorism.
B. humanism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. functionalism.

 

97. "Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes." These words would MOST likely have been said by 


A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. William James.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

98. Skinner's behaviorism 


A. left room for free will.
B. included constructs about motives.
C. permitted limited statements about consciousness.
D. made the study of behavior and its outcome the basis of the whole approach.

 

99. Which of the following psychologists would have been MOST likely to assert that "free will is an illusion"? 


A. Abraham Maslow
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. Carl Rogers

 

100. In the 1950s Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of 


A. humanism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

101. Which psychologist believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes? 


A. Carl Rogers
B. Sigmund Freud
C. William James
D. B. F. Skinner

 

102. Skinner would suggest that if you study "extra hard" for your first psychology midterm and earn an "A", for your next psychology midterm you would 


A. continue to study "extra hard."
B. reduce your study time by approximately 25%.
C. reduce your study time by approximately 50%.
D. devote all of your study time to your other courses.

 

103. It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by 


A. William James.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

104. Lisa taught her son to buckle his seat belt in the car by only allowing him to play one of his tapes on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of 


A. cognitive psychology.
B. biological psychology.
C. humanism.
D. behaviorism.

 

105. Skinner would agree with all the following statements except: 


A. all behavior is governed by external consequences
B. individuals have free will
C. organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes
D. organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes

 

106. Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person? 


A. behaviorists
B. psychoanalysts
C. humanists
D. Gestalt psychologists

 

107. The theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. humanism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

108. The school of psychology that takes the most positive view of human nature is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. humanism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

109. Which type of psychologist would be LEAST likely to generalize from studies of animal subjects to human behavior? 


A. a psychoanalyst
B. a behaviorist
C. a humanist
D. a cognitive psychologist

 

110. Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate doesn't think that Oliver's research will produce much useful information about human motivation because he believes that information from animal studies will not provide meaningful information about human experiences. Oliver's roommate apparently has 


A. a humanistic perspective.
B. an evolutionary perspective.
C. a biological perspective.
D. a cognitive perspective.

 

111. The theoretical viewpoint that is MOST closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is 


A. cognitive approach.
B. humanism.
C. structuralism.
D. biological approach.

 

112. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist? 


A. Humans are unique.
B. The behavior of humans tends to be dictated by environmental circumstances.
C. Humans have a basic need to fulfill their potentials.
D. Research on animals has little relevance to understanding human behavior.

 

113. Humanists believe that people's behavior is governed by 


A. their self-concepts.
B. unconscious sexual urges.
C. the outcomes of their responses.
D. biochemical processes.

 

114. The school of psychology that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and suggests that we have a drive for personal growth is 


A. humanism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. behaviorism.
D. functionalism.

 

115. Manny tends to be very passive and allows people to take advantage of him. What would a humanist be MOST likely to say about Manny? 


A. Manny will find it difficult to change because he probably has deep-seated feelings of inferiority.
B. Manny can become more assertive once he begins to feel better about himself and recognizes that he has the ability to fulfill his potential.
C. Manny simply needs to take an assertiveness training class in which he can learn and practice assertive behaviors.
D. Manny should undergo analysis so that he can begin to resolve whatever unconscious conflict is at the root of his passivity.

 

116. Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her potential? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. B. F. Skinner
C. G. Stanley Hall
D. Abraham Maslow

 

117. Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor's views reflect those seen in 


A. the evolutionary perspective.
B. the humanistic perspective.
C. the psychodynamic perspective.
D. the behavioral perspective.

 

118. Which of the following "schools" of psychology developed in the 1950s? 


A. psychoanalysis
B. functionalism
C. humanism
D. behaviorism

 

119. Which of the following "schools" of psychology believes people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth and experience free will? 


A. humanism
B. behaviorism
C. cognitive psychology
D. psychoanalysis

 

120. The "school" of psychology that emphasizes unique qualities of people compared to other animals is 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. behaviorism.
D. humanism.

 

121. Which of the following psychologists is(are) considered humanistic psychologist(s)? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
D. Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

 

122. Both Rogers and Maslow believe 


A. people are not masters of their own destiny
B. people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth
C. human behavior is largely determined by primitive sexual urges
D. human behavior is shaped by environmental events

 

123. As a young psychologist, your major goal is to help people reach their potential. You MOST likely follow the principles of 


A. behaviorism.
B. structuralism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. humanism.

 

124. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called 


A. developmental psychology.
B. abnormal psychology.
C. applied psychology.
D. cognitive psychology.

 

125. Margaret is an industrial psychologist who advises companies on how to improve worker morale. As a psychologist who attempts to solve practical problems, Margaret would MOST likely be considered 


A. an academic psychologist.
B. an applied psychologist.
C. a behavioral psychologist.
D. a humanistic psychologist.

 

126. Which of the following sounds LEAST like the work of an applied psychologist? 


A. finding ways to teach learning disabled children
B. studying basic learning processes in rats
C. treating someone with a phobia
D. looking for ways to increase efficiency in an organization

 

127. The area of applied psychology MOST stimulated by World War II was 


A. quantitative psychology.
B. clinical psychology.
C. child psychology.
D. educational psychology.

 

128. A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in 


A. determining how small groups make decisions.
B. studying facial expressions of emotion.
C. figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
D. studying the nature of optical illusions.

 

129. The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is called 


A. industrial psychology.
B. social psychology.
C. developmental psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

 

130. If you were having problems with severe depression, the type of psychologist that would be the greatest help to you would be 


A. a developmental psychologist.
B. a social psychologist.
C. a clinical psychologist.
D. an experimental psychologist.

 

131. Michael is having problems relating to other people because he is exhibiting delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations. Michael would MOST likely seek help from 


A. a clinical psychologist.
B. a developmental psychologist.
C. an experimental psychologist.
D. a physiological psychologist.

 

132. During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as 


A. clinicians.
B. physicians.
C. teachers.
D. military leaders.

 

133. One of the first areas of applied psychology to develop was 


A. counseling psychology.
B. mental testing.
C. personnel psychology.
D. sports psychology.

 

134. Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology? 


A. the advent of high-speed computers
B. the high demand for mental testing of military recruits
C. the increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology
D. the increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders

 

135. Which of the following organizations was established in 1988 to serve exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology? 


A. American Psychological Association
B. American Psychological Society
C. Society for the Study of Scientific Psychology
D. American Association for the Advancement of Science

 

136. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included under the umbrella of applied psychology? 


A. school psychology
B. counseling psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. industrial/organizational psychology

 

137. Applied psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with 


A. the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.
B. mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
C. unique qualities of individuals.
D. practical problems.

 

138. The area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders is 


A. research psychology.
B. clinical psychology.
C. applied psychology.
D. medical psychology.

 

139. The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was 


A. World War I.
B. the Great Depression of the 1930s.
C. World War II.
D. the cold war of the 1950s.

 

140. The major organization that represents BOTH the scientific and professional branches of psychology in the United States is the 


A. American Medical Society.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. American Psychiatric Society.
D. American Psychological Association.

 

141. After World War II, many psychologists began to specialize in 


A. clinical psychology.
B. research psychology.
C. experimental psychology.
D. industrial psychology.

 

142. The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is 


A. cognition.
B. pedagogy.
C. empiricism.
D. introspection.

 

143. Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events? 


A. physiological psychology
B. psychoanalysis
C. behavioral psychology
D. cognitive psychology

 

144. The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is 


A. behaviorism.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. humanism.

 

145. Which of the following is MOST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist? 


A. strategies used by college students to solve a particular problem
B. play behavior in preschool children
C. whether or not a job incentive program is effective
D. factors that determine group cohesiveness

 

146. Programmers who were working on a chess-playing super computer asked a psychologist from their university for some help in working out the problem-solving algorithms they would be using. The psychologist who helped with this project was MOST likely 


A. a behavioral psychologist.
B. a humanistic psychologist.
C. a biological psychologist.
D. a cognitive psychologist.

 

147. Which of the following psychologists demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals? 


A. James Olds
B. Roger Sperry
C. B. F. Skinner
D. Abraham Maslow

 

148. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist? 


A. how we remember things
B. the development of language
C. shaping behavior by reinforcement
D. how people reason to solve problems

 

149. Research findings from the 1950s and 1960s highlighted the 


A. mind has unequivocal control over the body.
B. body has unequivocal control over the mind.
C. interrelations between the mind, body and behavior.
D. cognitive viewpoint will reconcile many research findings.

 

150. The results from a recent study suggest that the cognitive perspective surpassed the behavioral perspective in influence sometime around 


A. 1920.
B. 1950.
C. 1970.
D. 1990.

 

151. Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be 


A. a behavioral psychologist.
B. a humanistic psychologist.
C. a cognitive psychologist.
D. a biological psychologist.

 

152. Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemispheres in individuals from different cultures. If Annabel could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, she would MOST likely choose to work with 


A. Carl Rogers.
B. Roger Sperry.
C. John B. Watson.
D. Alfred Adler.

 

153. A recently published case study described an individual who showed obsessive behavior. Recordings of brain activity indicated this same individual also experienced a number of mild epileptic seizures each day. When the epileptic seizures were brought under control using medication, the obsessive behavior also disappeared. The type of psychologist who would be MOST interested in this case study would be one who had 


A. an evolutionary perspective.
B. a cognitive perspective.
C. a behavioral perspective.
D. a biological perspective.

 

154. The research psychologists who are MOST likely to conduct research studies using animals are those who have 


A. a behavioral or biological perspective.
B. a behavioral or psychoanalytic perspective.
C. a biological or psychoanalytic perspective.
D. a psychoanalytic or cognitive perspective.

 

155. Which pair of terms both reflect the observation that "psychology returned to its roots" in the latter part of the 20th century? 


A. cultural perspective and biological perspective
B. biological perspective and humanism
C. cognitive perspective and humanism
D. cognitive perspective and biological perspective

 

156. A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s which reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is 


A. cognitive perspective.
B. mental perspective.
C. philosophical perspective.
D. biological perspective.

 

157. The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on 


A. the role of the unconscious.
B. internal mental events.
C. the interrelations among the mind, body and behavior.
D. the adaptive value of a behavior.

 

158. Decision making, reasoning, problem solving, and language are topics MOST likely to be studied by 


A. evolutionary psychologists.
B. biological psychologists.
C. cognitive psychologists.
D. behavioral psychologists.

 

159. A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s which reflects a renewed interest in the study of the physiological bases of behavior that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the 


A. cognitive perspective.
B. mental perspective.
C. philosophical perspective.
D. biological perspective.

 

160. Which of the following psychological perspectives is MOST likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior? 


A. evolutionary perspective
B. biological perspective
C. cognitive perspective
D. behavioral perspective

 

161. The biological perspective contends that to fully understand behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on 


A. the role of the unconscious.
B. internal mental events.
C. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior.
D. the adaptive value of a behavior.

 

162. Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez's beliefs are MOST consistent with the 


A. behavioral perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. biological perspective.
D. humanistic perspective.

 

163. The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is called 


A. racism.
B. egocentrism.
C. ethnocentrism.
D. functionalism.

 

164. Historically, most of psychology's research has been conducted in 


A. China.
B. Japan.
C. Mexico.
D. the United States.

 

165. Which of the following groups is MOST likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research? 


A. a variety of individuals
B. lower-class males
C. lower-class males and females
D. middle- and upper-class white males

 

166. The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is known as 


A. introspection.
B. ethnocentrism.
C. humanism.
D. positive psychology.

 

167. Which of the following is cited in the textbook as a reason for the narrow focus of Western psychology? 


A. Cross-cultural research is time-consuming and costly.
B. Psychology traditionally has emphasized the study of groups rather than individuals.
C. Anthropologists are more research-oriented than psychologists.
D. The influence of behaviorism narrowed the perspective of Western psychologists.

 

168. The recent increased interest in research dealing with "cultural" variables in psychology can be attributed to all EXCEPT which of the following? 


A. depersonalization of human beings by modern psychology
B. various groups (such as civil rights groups, women's groups) arguing that society has paid little attention to human diversity
C. increased ethnic diversity in the United States
D. increased contact with non-Western cultures due to advances in communication and travel

 

169. Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counseling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates 


A. the biological determinants of behavior.
B. the impact of evolutionary factors in psychological functioning.
C. the role of cultural factors in psychological processes.
D. psychometrics and cognitive psychology.

 

170. Historically, which of the following groups of individuals has been MOST frequently used as subjects in psychological research? 


A. white women
B. white men
C. black men
D. immigrant men and women

 

171. Recently Western psychologists have started to devote more attention to ____ as a determinant of behavior. 


A. intelligence
B. unconscious
C. feelings
D. culture

 

172. Psychologists who focus attention on cultural diversity are LEAST likely to 


A. document differences among varying cultures.
B. document similarities among varying cultures.
C. identify deficiencies in other cultures.
D. test the generality of earlier findings to other cultures.

 

173. The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is 


A. clinical psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. physiological psychology.

 

174. Professor Immel believes that behaviors that are predominant in certain species probably serve some adaptive function. Professor Immel's beliefs are MOST consistent with the 


A. behavioral perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. humanistic perspective.
D. evolutionary perspective.

 

175. The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms' success in 


A. establishing a territory.
B. locating a source of food.
C. passing on their genes to the next generation.
D. aggressive interactions with members of other species.

 

176. Currently a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks that, in part, this may be due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are MOST consistent with those of the 


A. cultural perspective in psychology.
B. cognitive perspective in psychology.
C. behavioral perspective in psychology.
D. evolutionary perspective in psychology.

 

177. Evolutionary psychologists would MOST likely explain females' greater emphasis on potential mates' economic resources by suggesting that it 


A. increases resources available for their children.
B. supports their innate need for a large territory.
C. allows them to acquire a greater variety of time-saving appliances.
D. increases females' confidence about the maternity of their children.

 

178. Which of the following early psychologists would be MOST likely to endorse the tenets of evolutionary psychology? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. William James
C. John Watson
D. Wilhelm Wundt

 

179. The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of evolutionary psychology is 


A. Alfred Binet.
B. David Buss.
C. Roger Sperry.
D. James Olds.

 

180. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the current thinking about evolutionary psychology? 


A. It is a widely accepted approach to the study of human behavior.
B. It is a simplistic rehash of ideas proposed by Charles Darwin over 140 years ago.
C. It is a radical perspective supported by a small group of "revolutionary" scientists.
D. It is a thought-provoking, innovative perspective that is rapidly gaining influence.

 

181. The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of positive psychology is 


A. David Buss.
B. Roger Sperry.
C. James Olds.
D. Martin Seligman.

 

182. Some researchers have suggested that people currently tend to sleep during periods of darkness because sleeping under these conditions was an adaptive behavior that helped to increase survival among early humans. This is the type of argument that would MOST likely be made by psychologists who take the 


A. cognitive perspective in psychology.
B. evolutionary perspective in psychology.
C. biological perspective in psychology.
D. behavioral perspective in psychology.

 

183. Damion wants to investigate whether altruistic behavior in a specific species of tropical birds gives the birds an evolutionary advantage. If Damion could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, he would MOST likely choose to work with 


A. Herbert Simon.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. David Buss.
D. Carl Jung.

 

184. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "psychology has historically devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness and how to heal suffering." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. Martin Seligman.
B. Richard Buss.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Carl Rogers.

 

185. The viewpoint in psychology that uses theory and research to understand the adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence is known as 


A. physiological psychology.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. positive psychology.
D. applied psychology.

 

186. Evolutionary psychology examines ____ processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. 


A. physiological
B. behavioral
C. cultural
D. cognitive

 

187. If you wonder about the adaptive purpose of a common behavior (such as toddlers following their mothers around or teenagers wanting more independence from their parents) your wondering would be MOST consistent with the principles of 


A. cultural psychology.
B. humanism.
C. biological psychology.
D. evolutionary psychology.

 

188. The emerging field in psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human experience is 


A. humanism.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. positive psychology.
D. creative psychology.

 

189. Which of the following is NOT a major area of interest in the positive psychology movement? 


A. positive subjective experiences
B. positive life events
C. positive institutions and communities
D. positive individual traits

 

190. Topics such as courage, tolerance, creativity, and integrity reflect the interest of the positive psychology movement on the study of 


A. positive subjective experiences.
B. positive individual traits.
C. positive institutions and communities.
D. positive life events.

 

191. According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both 


A. a science and a profession.
B. a theory and an academic discipline.
C. a school of thought and an occupation.
D. a cognitive process and an undergraduate major.

 

192. Over the last 50 years membership in the American Psychological Association has 


A. decreased.
B. remained the same.
C. increased dramatically.
D. first increased and then decreased.

 

193. Of all doctoral degrees awarded in the sciences and humanities, psychology accounts for about 


A. 5%.
B. 9%.
C. 20%.
D. 50%.

 

194. According to your textbook, the work settings for approximately 28% of psychologists are 


A. hospitals and nursing homes.
B. business and industry.
C. colleges and universities.
D. police departments and schools.

 

195. One of the key changes that has occurred in psychology over time is that 


A. psychology has become increasingly less applied in its focus.
B. the number of clinicians is decreasing.
C. psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.
D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

 

196. The text's definition of psychology states that psychology is both a science and a(n) 


A. art.
B. academic subject.
C. profession.
D. career.

 

197. Which of the following is NOT included in the text's definition of psychology? 


A. psychology is a profession that solves practical problems
B. psychology studies behavior including physiological and cognitive processes
C. psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
D. psychology is a science

 

198. Colleges and universities are the primary work setting for approximately ____ of American psychologists. 


A. 10 percent
B. 30 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 70 percent

 

199. Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a major area of research in psychology? 


A. physiological psychology
B. cognitive psychology
C. industrial/organizational psychology
D. social psychology

 

200. A psychologist whose major interest focuses on how behavior changes as a function of age would probably be considered a 


A. physiological psychologist.
B. developmental psychologist.
C. social psychologist.
D. cognitive psychologist.

 

201. Which of the following is likely to be of MOST interest to a developmental psychologist? 


A. the dynamics of small group decision making
B. the effect of anxiety on problem-solving behavior
C. the use of physical exercise as a means of combating depression
D. the effects on children of being raised in a single-parent home

 

202. A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in 


A. developmental psychology.
B. experimental psychology.
C. cognitive psychology.
D. psychometrics.

 

203. Larry is a graduate student whose major area of interest is social psychology. You should expect that Larry is MOST interested in 


A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
C. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
D. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.

 

204. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. How stable is personality over the lifespan?
B. Why do we like some people and not others?
C. What effect does anxiety have on test performance?
D. Do depressed people think differently than non-depressed people?

 

205. Which of the following would NOT be expected of an experimental psychologist? 


A. to study the effects of reward on learning
B. to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and task performance
C. to conduct psychotherapy
D. to study the factors that motivate behavior

 

206. Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behavior? 


A. developmental psychology
B. physiological psychology
C. psychometrics
D. cognitive psychology

 

207. Phillip is a graduate student whose major area of interest is physiological psychology. You should expect that Phillip is MOST interested in 


A. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
B. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
C. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.
D. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.

 

208. Which of the following would a physiological psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. How do hormones affect behavior?
B. Why do we like some people and not others?
C. What effect does reward have on learning?
D. What are the stages of problem solving?

 

209. A psychologist who studies information processing and decision making would probably be considered a 


A. physiological psychologist.
B. developmental psychologist.
C. social psychologist.
D. cognitive psychologist.

 

210. A cognitive psychologist is MOST likely to be interested in 


A. behavior in small groups.
B. information processing.
C. the adolescent identity crisis.
D. interpersonal attraction.

 

211. Ramon is a graduate student whose major area of interest is cognitive psychology. You should expect that Ramon is MOST interested in 


A. understanding mental processes such as memory and learning.
B. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
D. how people relate to each other and influence each other.

 

212. Brooke is a graduate student whose major area of interest is in describing and understanding the consistency in people's behavior. Which research is Brooke MOST likely to specialize in? 


A. social psychology
B. personality psychology
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

213. Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people's behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers' research specialization? 


A. experimental psychology
B. personality psychology
C. psychometrics
D. social psychology

 

214. Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in 


A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
D. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.

 

215. Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques? 


A. social psychology
B. psychometrics
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

216. A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics would MOST likely be concerned with which of the following? 


A. developing tests
B. counseling
C. animal experimentation
D. the relationship between brain chemistry and behavior

 

217. Pablo is a graduate student whose major area of interest is the measurement of behavior and capacities and the development of psychological tests. Which research is Pablo MOST likely to specialize in? 


A. social psychology
B. psychometrics
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

218. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization in research psychology? 


A. psychometrics
B. industrial/organizational
C. personality
D. social

 

219. Currently, the two largest areas of specialization in research-oriented psychology are 


A. clinical and counseling.
B. developmental and clinical.
C. developmental and social.
D. social and counseling.

 

220. ____ psychologists are concerned with changes in behavior throughout the life span. 


A. Developmental
B. Personality
C. Social
D. Cognitive

 

221. A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women towards traditional sex roles were studied. MOST likely the researcher was 


A. a cognitive psychologist.
B. a counseling psychologist.
C. a developmental psychologist.
D. a social psychologist.

 

222. A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics is MOST likely to be interested in 


A. the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits.
B. explaining development across the life span.
C. conducting psychotherapy.
D. the development of techniques to monitor the functioning of the nervous system.

 

223. The area of research specialization in psychology that studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, motivation) is 


A. psychometrics.
B. experimental.
C. educational.
D. cognitive.

 

224. Jane's thyroid gland has become inactive and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by 


A. clinical psychologists.
B. medical psychologists.
C. experimental psychologists.
D. physiological psychologists.

 

225. Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle-school children and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as 


A. cognitive psychology.
B. psychometrics.
C. educational psychology.
D. developmental psychology.

 

226. The focus of research for educational psychology is 


A. developmental outcomes from ages six through eighteen.
B. how people learn and the best way to teach them.
C. interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior.
D. describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior.

 

227. The area of psychological research that is MOST interested in the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness is 


A. health psychology.
B. physiological psychology.
C. social psychology.
D. psychiatry.

 

228. The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is 


A. less than 3%.
B. just over 25%.
C. shrinking each year.
D. approximately 10%.

 

229. Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology? 


A. psychometrics
B. counseling psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. developmental psychology

 

230. Which of the following areas is MOST similar to clinical psychology? 


A. social psychology
B. school psychology
C. industrial psychology
D. counseling psychology

 

231. Which of the following areas is LEAST likely to be considered an applied area of psychology? 


A. industrial psychology
B. clinical psychology
C. educational psychology
D. developmental psychology

 

232. Dr. Lopez is a psychologist who evaluates, diagnoses, and treats people with everyday problems of moderate severity. What type of psychologist is Dr. Lopez? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

233. A psychologist who works on trying to increase job satisfaction and productivity in a large company would MOST likely have received training in 


A. clinical psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. educational and school psychology.
D. industrial and organizational psychology.

 

234. Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

235. Dr Hawkins is a psychologist who spends her day working in an elementary school testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school. What type of applied psychologist is Dr. Hawkins? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

236. An industrial/organizational psychologist would be MOST likely to be involved in 


A. providing assistance to people struggling with everyday problems.
B. working to improve employee morale and attitudes.
C. testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school.
D. providing group or individual psychotherapy.

 

237. The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is 


A. clinical psychology.
B. experimental psychology.
C. educational and school psychology.
D. industrial/organizational psychology.

 

238. Kenn is a psychologist who spends the majority of his time assessing or treating elderly people who are showing signs of dementia or who have experienced strokes. Ken would MOST likely describe the focus of his practice as 


A. counseling psychology.
B. psychometrics.
C. clinical neuropsychology.
D. forensic psychology.

 

239. As part of their professional practice, forensic psychologists 


A. strive to promote the cognitive, emotional, and social development of school-age children.
B. apply psychological principles to issues arising in the legal system.
C. are involved in the assessment of people who suffer from central nervous system dysfunctions.
D. are concerned with the measurement of behavior and the development of valid psychological tests.

 

240. A lawyer who wanted to have expert witness testify at a hearing to determine whether or not his client was competent to stand trial would need to contact a psychologist whose specialty was 


A. forensic psychology.
B. clinical neuropsychology.
C. psychometrics.
D. social psychology.

 

241. Not including clinical or counseling psychologists, the two most common specialties in applied psychology are 


A. school psychology and forensic psychology.
B. forensic psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
C. industrial/organizational psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
D. school psychology and industrial/organizational psychology.

 

242. Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders? 


A. a clinical psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a psychiatrist
D. a physiological psychologist

 

243. Which of the following statements regarding the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist is MOST accurate? 


A. Psychiatrists cannot prescribe drugs.
B. A clinical psychologist has a medical degree.
C. Both clinical psychologists and psychiatrists receive medical training.
D. Clinical psychologists tend to take a non-medical approach to the treatment of psychological disorders.

 

244. A psychiatrist typically has a 


A. Doctorate in Psychology.
B. Medical Degree.
C. Doctorate in Physiology.
D. Doctorate in Education.

 

245. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization of applied psychology? 


A. school psychology
B. industrial and organizational psychology
C. counseling psychology
D. personality psychology

 

246. An area of specialization in applied psychology that is primarily involved in the treatment of less severe problems of everyday life (such as marriage counseling) is 


A. social psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. cognitive psychology.

 

247. Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers? 


A. school psychology
B. educational psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. industrial/organizational psychology

 

248. The most widely practiced specialization in applied psychology is 


A. industrial/organizational psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. developmental psychology.

 

249. ____ psychologists work in schools and primarily help individual children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems. 


A. School
B. Educational
C. Counseling
D. Social

 

250. As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____ would be MOST likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale. 


A. social psychologist
B. educational psychologist
C. industrial/organizational psychologist
D. clinical psychologist

 
Chapter 1 A--The Evolution of Psychology Key


 

1. Psychology's intellectual parents are the disciplines of 


A. physics and physiology.
B. philosophy and physiology.
C. chemistry and physics.
D. philosophy and chemistry.

 

2. The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is 


A. G. Stanley Hall.
B. René Descartes.
C. William James.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

3. According to historians, the "birth" of psychology occurred in 


A. 1859 in England.
B. 1879 in Germany.
C. 1883 in the United States.
D. 1909 in the United States.

 

4. The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with 


A. William James.
B. Wilhelm Wundt.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. John B. Watson.

 

5. According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of 


A. observable behavior.
B. conscious experience.
C. unconscious motivation.
D. the functions of behavior.

 

6. Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be 


A. questioning the nature of existence.
B. studying stimulus-response associations.
C. determining people's unconscious motivation for behavior.
D. examining people's awareness of their immediate experience.

 

7. According to your textbook author, one factor that contributed to both the birth of psychology in Germany and the rapid growth of psychology in the United States toward the end of the 19th century is that 


A. intellectual climates in both countries favored the development of new nonscientific approaches.
B. many American students choose to study in Germany.
C. resources were available for expansion and universities climates were open to the development of new disciplines.
D. Wilhelm Wundt was a tireless scholar who generated numerous books and articles while establishing the APA in 1892.

 

8. The two disciplines from which psychology developed were 


A. sociology and philosophy.
B. philosophy and physiology.
C. physiology and theology.
D. physiology and sociology.

 

9. While the term psychology has existed since at LEAST the early 1700s, psychology did not come to be considered a science until 


A. the 1750s.
B. the early 1800s.
C. the late 1800s.
D. the 1940s.

 

10. The "birth" of psychology as a science occurred in ____ when ____. 


A. 1859; Darwin published the theory of natural selection
B. 1879; Wundt established the first laboratory for psychological research
C. 1890; James published the textbook Principles of Psychology
D. 1900; Freud first described the unconscious

 

11. Wundt defined psychology as 


A. the scientific study of behavior.
B. the scientific study of the unconscious.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of conscious experience.

 

12. The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was 


A. John Watson.
B. William James.
C. G. Stanley Hall.
D. Edward Titchener.

 

13. The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was 


A. Sigmund Freud.
B. G. Stanley Hall.
C. William James.
D. John Watson.

 

14. The world's largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology is the 


A. World Psychology Organization.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. American Psychological Association.
D. Psychologists of North America.

 

15. Kesha is a member of the world's largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology. Kesha is MOST likely a member of the 


A. World Psychology Organization.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. Psychologists of North America.
D. American Psychological Association.

 

16. Which of the followings is NOT one of the major contributions of G. Stanley Hall? 


A. He established the first American psychological journal.
B. He established the first research laboratory for psychology in America.
C. He received the first Ph.D. in psychology in America.
D. He was the first president of the American Psychological Association.

 

17. The psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in America, founded the first American psychological journal, and was the first president of the American Psychological Association was 


A. G. Stanley Hall.
B. William James.
C. John Watson.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

18. In a discussion with your professor she tells you that she believes that the focus of psychological study should be to break the conscious experience into its basic elements. Which of the following historical schools of thought is your professor's idea MOST indicative of? 


A. behaviorism
B. functionalism
C. structuralism
D. psychoanalysis

 

19. The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images was 


A. humanism.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

20. Introspection was MOST likely to be used by 


A. humanist psychologists.
B. behaviorist psychologists.
C. structuralist psychologists.
D. functionalist psychologists.

 

21. Melissa is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully observe and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. Melissa is MOST likely participating in a study conducted by a 


A. humanist psychologist.
B. behaviorist psychologist.
C. structuralist psychologist.
D. psychoanalytic psychologist.

 

22. Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. humanism.

 

23. In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called 


A. introspection.
B. retrospection.
C. empiricism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

24. The method used to examine the contents of consciousness by early psychologists that involved the careful systematic self-observation of your own conscious experience is known as 


A. introspection.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. natural selection.

 

25. Wundt and Titchener believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

26. Dr. Asgaard believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as auditory processing, it is first necessary to understand all the separate component parts. Dr. Asgaard's views are MOST consistent with those of 


A. William James.
B. Ivan Pavlov.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Edward Titchener.

 

27. The "school" of psychology that states that the task of psychology is to analyze conscious experience into its basic elements is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. structuralism.

 

28. If you take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing (cold, bubbly, sweet, etc.) you would be utilizing the technique of 


A. introspection.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. empiricism.

 

29. If while watching an exquisite sunset you stop and analyze your sensations, thoughts, and feelings, you would be performing introspection as the ____ once did. 


A. structuralists
B. behaviorists
C. functionalists
D. psychoanalysts

 

30. The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was 


A. functionalism.
B. behaviorism.
C. neodynamism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

31. Dr. Lee is studying pain perception using a functionalist perspective. It is MOST likely that Dr. Lee would suggest that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain 


A. if all the component parts that make up the experience of pain are understood.
B. by observing the outward expression of pain in response to different stimuli.
C. if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.
D. if we understand the unconscious processes that initiate the sensation of pain.

 

32. Stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated with the school of psychology known as 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

33. William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was MOST heavily influenced by 


A. Charles Darwin.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. John Watson.
D. B. F. Skinner.

 

34. Dr. Yang is studying pain perception. She argues that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation. Which early school of psychology is Dr. Yang's views MOST like? 


A. structuralism
B. behaviorism
C. functionalism
D. humanism

 

35. Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are MOST consistent with 


A. the behaviorist approach to psychology.
B. the functionalist approach to psychology.
C. the structuralist approach to psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to psychology.

 

36. Dr. Rice believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the purpose that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. Dr. Rice's views are MOST consistent with those of 


A. Edward Titchener.
B. Ivan Pavlov.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. William James.

 

37. The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts was 


A. existential awareness.
B. stream of consciousness.
C. transcendental meditation.
D. phenomenological flow.

 

38. Of the following, the concept that is LEAST closely associated with functionalism is 


A. mental testing.
B. stream of consciousness.
C. adapting to the environment.
D. elements of consciousness.

 

39. Which of the following was LEAST likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists? 


A. mental testing
B. development in children
C. sensation and perception
D. the effectiveness of educational practices

 

40. The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was 


A. Mary Calkins.
B. Margaret Washburn.
C. Leta Hollingworth.
D. Anna Freud.

 

41. The early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology was 


A. structuralism.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. pragmatism.

 

42. Although functionalism faded away as a theoretical force in psychology, historians credit it with two important contributions to the discipline that includes the development of 


A. behaviorism and applied psychology.
B. psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
C. behaviorism and introspection.
D. women psychologists and applied psychology.

 

43. James believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

44. Functionalism was founded by 


A. John Watson.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. William James.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

45. The ____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose. 


A. behaviorists
B. humanists
C. functionalists
D. structuralists

 

46. William James was significantly influenced in his approach to studying psychology by 


A. Aristotle.
B. Plato.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Charles Darwin.

 

47. Darwin's theory of natural selection had a significant influence on the development of 


A. functionalism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. structuralism.
D. behaviorism.

 

48. The "school" of psychology that has a practical focus and is interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the world is 


A. psychoanalysis.
B. behaviorism.
C. functionalism.
D. structuralism.

 

49. The concept of "stream of consciousness" is associated with 


A. John Watson.
B. William James.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

50. The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of 


A. Carl Rogers.
B. Wilhelm Wundt.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

51. Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called 


A. behavior modification.
B. primal therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. rational-emotive therapy.

 

52. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Many times people are unaware of the unconscious motivations that drive their overt actions." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. B. F. Skinner.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Wilhelm Wundt.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

53. Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by 


A. unrealistic demands from family and friends.
B. personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level.
C. genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way.
D. conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints.

 

54. The major departure of Freud's position from prevailing viewpoints around the early 1900s was that he 


A. saw abnormal behavior as resulting from biological causes.
B. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.
C. proposed the existence of free will.
D. emphasized environmental forces on behavior.

 

55. People resisted psychoanalysis mainly because of its emphasis on 


A. unconscious motivation.
B. introspection.
C. the role of heredity.
D. stimulus-response associations.

 

56. People resisted psychoanalysis because of the suggestion that people are not masters of their own minds and because of Freud's proposal that behavior is influenced by how people cope with 


A. unconscious motivation.
B. sexual urges.
C. heredity.
D. stimulus-response associations.

 

57. Liserel is a graduate student who believes that the best approach to the study of psychology is to focus exclusively on the unconscious determinants of behavior. Liserel's views toward the study of psychology match those of 


A. the psychoanalytic perspective.
B. the cognitive perspective.
C. the humanistic perspective.
D. the structuralist perspective.

 

58. The idea that you have thoughts, memories, and desires beyond the control of conscious rational processes originated with 


A. John Watson.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

59. Which of the following statements about Freud's psychoanalytic theory is MOST accurate? 


A. Freud's views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology.
B. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology.
C. Freud's views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.
D. Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology.

 

60. Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by 


A. studying observable behavior.
B. analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. studying the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

61. You act impulsively, then wonder why. Freud would tell you that your behavior was influenced by your 


A. unconscious mind.
B. conscious mind.
C. inability to think quickly.
D. lack of rational thought.

 

62. Which of the following did not have a significant influence on the development of Freud's theory? 


A. knowledge gained as a result of working with patients
B. the results of his experimental research
C. knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires
D. his observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make

 

63. Freud believed that we are often not the masters of our own mind because of 


A. introspection.
B. the physiological functioning of our bodies.
C. environmental influences acting on us.
D. the unconscious.

 

64. Which of the following was not one of the reasons why psychoanalysis was controversial when it was first developed? 


A. its focus on the unconscious
B. its emphasis on sexual issues
C. its focus on humans
D. its lack of experimental research

 

65. While psychoanalysis was originally ____, with the passage of time many psychoanalytic concepts came to be ____ by mainstream psychology. 


A. controversial; rejected
B. controversial; accepted
C. accepted; rejected
D. only accepted by behaviorists; accepted

 

66. The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was 


A. John B. Watson.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. G. Stanley Hall.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

67. The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was 


A. structuralism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

68. The school of psychology that suggests psychologists should study only what can be objectively observed is 


A. humanism.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

69. According to a behaviorist, an overt (observable) response or activity by an organism is 


A. behavior.
B. the unconscious.
C. behaviorism.
D. a stimulus.

 

70. With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree? 


A. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
B. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
C. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual's interpretation of experience.
D. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.

 

71. John B. Watson argued that psychologists should 


A. use the method of introspection to establish the structural aspects of consciousness.
B. be concerned with the purposiveness (function) of behavior.
C. confine their work to people who are diagnosed as mentally ill.
D. abandon the study of consciousness.

 

72. According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by 


A. heredity.
B. personal motives.
C. the environment.
D. unconscious desires.

 

73. Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements? 


A. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
B. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
C. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.
D. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.

 

74. Response is to stimulus as 


A. pain is to cut.
B. light is to moth.
C. joke is to laugh.
D. pen is to paper.

 

75. Another name for the behavioral approach in psychology is 


A. stimulus-response psychology.
B. structuralism.
C. applied psychology.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

76. Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison's views are MOST consistent with the 


A. behaviorist view of psychology.
B. structuralist view of psychology.
C. functionalist view of psychology.
D. psychoanalytic view of psychology.

 

77. Lynelle is crying because her brother just punched her in the arm. Lynelle's mother asks her what she did just before she was punched. In looking for a link between her daughter's actions and her son's response to those actions, Lynelle's mother is using the type of analysis that would be typical in 


A. the structuralist approach to the study of psychology.
B. the functionalist approach to the study of psychology.
C. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to the study of psychology.

 

78. The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology was 


A. behaviorism.
B. structuralism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. Gestalt psychology.

 

79. The type of psychologist who would be MOST likely to study rats in a laboratory setting would be a 


A. behaviorist.
B. structuralist.
C. psychoanalyst.
D. Gestalt psychologist.

 

80. Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would MOST likely be considered a 


A. behaviorist.
B. structuralist.
C. psychoanalyst.
D. Gestalt psychologist.

 

81. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the main advantage of conducting psychological research with animals? 


A. It is much cheaper to conduct research on animals than on humans.
B. In their biological makeup, animals are fundamentally similar to humans.
C. With research on animals, there are no ethical issues to be concerned with.
D. A researcher can exert more control over an animal than over a human subject.

 

82. Behaviorism was founded by 


A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. John Watson.
D. Sigmund Freud.

 

83. Watson believed that psychology should 


A. only study observable behavior.
B. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
C. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
D. study the function or purpose of consciousness.

 

84. Watson defined psychology as 


A. the scientific study of behavior.
B. the scientific study of the unconscious.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of conscious experience.

 

85. The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of 


A. psychoanalysis.
B. functionalism.
C. structuralism.
D. behaviorism.

 

86. Which psychological approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology? 


A. psychoanalytic theory
B. behaviorism
C. structuralism
D. evolutionary psychology

 

87. Which of the following "schools" of psychology was MOST influential in increasing the use of animals in psychological research? 


A. humanism
B. animalism
C. behaviorism
D. structuralism

 

88. If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist he would MOST likely believe that the cause of a child's disruptive behavior in school is the result of 


A. a learning disability.
B. his genetic inheritance.
C. his prior experiences.
D. a combination of his genetic inheritance and his prior experiences.

 

89. A group of psychologists is conducting research to determine whether people eat more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashing lights. These scientists MOST likely follow 


A. the behavioral perspective.
B. the psychodynamic perspective.
C. the humanistic perspective.
D. the functionalist perspective.

 

90. Marissa wants to study people's emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that she should focus on observable behaviors, rather than internal states in her study. Bernard's views are MOST similar to those found in 


A. the psychodynamic perspective.
B. the evolutionary perspective.
C. the behavioral perspective.
D. the biological perspective.

 

91. Caroline conducts research in which she systematically changes some aspect of the environment and then measures changes in observable behavior. This approach to research is consistent with the basic ideas of 


A. the humanistic perspective in psychology.
B. the behavioral perspective in psychology.
C. the psychoanalytic perspective in psychology.
D. the biological perspective in psychology.

 

92. The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with 


A. behaviorism.
B. humanism.
C. structuralism.
D. functionalism.

 

93. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Internal states undoubtedly exist, but it is not necessary to draw inferences about unobservable states in order to understand behavior." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. William James.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Carl Rogers.

 

94. The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was 


A. Sigmund Freud.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

95. With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events? 


A. John Watson
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. Abraham Maslow

 

96. Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of 


A. behaviorism.
B. humanism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. functionalism.

 

97. "Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes." These words would MOST likely have been said by 


A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. William James.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Abraham Maslow.

 

98. Skinner's behaviorism 


A. left room for free will.
B. included constructs about motives.
C. permitted limited statements about consciousness.
D. made the study of behavior and its outcome the basis of the whole approach.

 

99. Which of the following psychologists would have been MOST likely to assert that "free will is an illusion"? 


A. Abraham Maslow
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. Carl Rogers

 

100. In the 1950s Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of 


A. humanism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

101. Which psychologist believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes? 


A. Carl Rogers
B. Sigmund Freud
C. William James
D. B. F. Skinner

 

102. Skinner would suggest that if you study "extra hard" for your first psychology midterm and earn an "A", for your next psychology midterm you would 


A. continue to study "extra hard."
B. reduce your study time by approximately 25%.
C. reduce your study time by approximately 50%.
D. devote all of your study time to your other courses.

 

103. It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by 


A. William James.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.

 

104. Lisa taught her son to buckle his seat belt in the car by only allowing him to play one of his tapes on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of 


A. cognitive psychology.
B. biological psychology.
C. humanism.
D. behaviorism.

 

105. Skinner would agree with all the following statements except: 


A. all behavior is governed by external consequences
B. individuals have free will
C. organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes
D. organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes

 

106. Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person? 


A. behaviorists
B. psychoanalysts
C. humanists
D. Gestalt psychologists

 

107. The theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. humanism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

108. The school of psychology that takes the most positive view of human nature is 


A. behaviorism.
B. functionalism.
C. humanism.
D. psychoanalysis.

 

109. Which type of psychologist would be LEAST likely to generalize from studies of animal subjects to human behavior? 


A. a psychoanalyst
B. a behaviorist
C. a humanist
D. a cognitive psychologist

 

110. Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate doesn't think that Oliver's research will produce much useful information about human motivation because he believes that information from animal studies will not provide meaningful information about human experiences. Oliver's roommate apparently has 


A. a humanistic perspective.
B. an evolutionary perspective.
C. a biological perspective.
D. a cognitive perspective.

 

111. The theoretical viewpoint that is MOST closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is 


A. cognitive approach.
B. humanism.
C. structuralism.
D. biological approach.

 

112. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist? 


A. Humans are unique.
B. The behavior of humans tends to be dictated by environmental circumstances.
C. Humans have a basic need to fulfill their potentials.
D. Research on animals has little relevance to understanding human behavior.

 

113. Humanists believe that people's behavior is governed by 


A. their self-concepts.
B. unconscious sexual urges.
C. the outcomes of their responses.
D. biochemical processes.

 

114. The school of psychology that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and suggests that we have a drive for personal growth is 


A. humanism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. behaviorism.
D. functionalism.

 

115. Manny tends to be very passive and allows people to take advantage of him. What would a humanist be MOST likely to say about Manny? 


A. Manny will find it difficult to change because he probably has deep-seated feelings of inferiority.
B. Manny can become more assertive once he begins to feel better about himself and recognizes that he has the ability to fulfill his potential.
C. Manny simply needs to take an assertiveness training class in which he can learn and practice assertive behaviors.
D. Manny should undergo analysis so that he can begin to resolve whatever unconscious conflict is at the root of his passivity.

 

116. Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her potential? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. B. F. Skinner
C. G. Stanley Hall
D. Abraham Maslow

 

117. Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor's views reflect those seen in 


A. the evolutionary perspective.
B. the humanistic perspective.
C. the psychodynamic perspective.
D. the behavioral perspective.

 

118. Which of the following "schools" of psychology developed in the 1950s? 


A. psychoanalysis
B. functionalism
C. humanism
D. behaviorism

 

119. Which of the following "schools" of psychology believes people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth and experience free will? 


A. humanism
B. behaviorism
C. cognitive psychology
D. psychoanalysis

 

120. The "school" of psychology that emphasizes unique qualities of people compared to other animals is 


A. evolutionary psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. behaviorism.
D. humanism.

 

121. Which of the following psychologists is(are) considered humanistic psychologist(s)? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
D. Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

 

122. Both Rogers and Maslow believe 


A. people are not masters of their own destiny
B. people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth
C. human behavior is largely determined by primitive sexual urges
D. human behavior is shaped by environmental events

 

123. As a young psychologist, your major goal is to help people reach their potential. You MOST likely follow the principles of 


A. behaviorism.
B. structuralism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. humanism.

 

124. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called 


A. developmental psychology.
B. abnormal psychology.
C. applied psychology.
D. cognitive psychology.

 

125. Margaret is an industrial psychologist who advises companies on how to improve worker morale. As a psychologist who attempts to solve practical problems, Margaret would MOST likely be considered 


A. an academic psychologist.
B. an applied psychologist.
C. a behavioral psychologist.
D. a humanistic psychologist.

 

126. Which of the following sounds LEAST like the work of an applied psychologist? 


A. finding ways to teach learning disabled children
B. studying basic learning processes in rats
C. treating someone with a phobia
D. looking for ways to increase efficiency in an organization

 

127. The area of applied psychology MOST stimulated by World War II was 


A. quantitative psychology.
B. clinical psychology.
C. child psychology.
D. educational psychology.

 

128. A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in 


A. determining how small groups make decisions.
B. studying facial expressions of emotion.
C. figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
D. studying the nature of optical illusions.

 

129. The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is called 


A. industrial psychology.
B. social psychology.
C. developmental psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

 

130. If you were having problems with severe depression, the type of psychologist that would be the greatest help to you would be 


A. a developmental psychologist.
B. a social psychologist.
C. a clinical psychologist.
D. an experimental psychologist.

 

131. Michael is having problems relating to other people because he is exhibiting delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations. Michael would MOST likely seek help from 


A. a clinical psychologist.
B. a developmental psychologist.
C. an experimental psychologist.
D. a physiological psychologist.

 

132. During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as 


A. clinicians.
B. physicians.
C. teachers.
D. military leaders.

 

133. One of the first areas of applied psychology to develop was 


A. counseling psychology.
B. mental testing.
C. personnel psychology.
D. sports psychology.

 

134. Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology? 


A. the advent of high-speed computers
B. the high demand for mental testing of military recruits
C. the increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology
D. the increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders

 

135. Which of the following organizations was established in 1988 to serve exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology? 


A. American Psychological Association
B. American Psychological Society
C. Society for the Study of Scientific Psychology
D. American Association for the Advancement of Science

 

136. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included under the umbrella of applied psychology? 


A. school psychology
B. counseling psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. industrial/organizational psychology

 

137. Applied psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with 


A. the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.
B. mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
C. unique qualities of individuals.
D. practical problems.

 

138. The area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders is 


A. research psychology.
B. clinical psychology.
C. applied psychology.
D. medical psychology.

 

139. The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was 


A. World War I.
B. the Great Depression of the 1930s.
C. World War II.
D. the cold war of the 1950s.

 

140. The major organization that represents BOTH the scientific and professional branches of psychology in the United States is the 


A. American Medical Society.
B. American Psychological Society.
C. American Psychiatric Society.
D. American Psychological Association.

 

141. After World War II, many psychologists began to specialize in 


A. clinical psychology.
B. research psychology.
C. experimental psychology.
D. industrial psychology.

 

142. The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is 


A. cognition.
B. pedagogy.
C. empiricism.
D. introspection.

 

143. Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events? 


A. physiological psychology
B. psychoanalysis
C. behavioral psychology
D. cognitive psychology

 

144. The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is 


A. behaviorism.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. humanism.

 

145. Which of the following is MOST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist? 


A. strategies used by college students to solve a particular problem
B. play behavior in preschool children
C. whether or not a job incentive program is effective
D. factors that determine group cohesiveness

 

146. Programmers who were working on a chess-playing super computer asked a psychologist from their university for some help in working out the problem-solving algorithms they would be using. The psychologist who helped with this project was MOST likely 


A. a behavioral psychologist.
B. a humanistic psychologist.
C. a biological psychologist.
D. a cognitive psychologist.

 

147. Which of the following psychologists demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals? 


A. James Olds
B. Roger Sperry
C. B. F. Skinner
D. Abraham Maslow

 

148. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist? 


A. how we remember things
B. the development of language
C. shaping behavior by reinforcement
D. how people reason to solve problems

 

149. Research findings from the 1950s and 1960s highlighted the 


A. mind has unequivocal control over the body.
B. body has unequivocal control over the mind.
C. interrelations between the mind, body and behavior.
D. cognitive viewpoint will reconcile many research findings.

 

150. The results from a recent study suggest that the cognitive perspective surpassed the behavioral perspective in influence sometime around 


A. 1920.
B. 1950.
C. 1970.
D. 1990.

 

151. Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be 


A. a behavioral psychologist.
B. a humanistic psychologist.
C. a cognitive psychologist.
D. a biological psychologist.

 

152. Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemispheres in individuals from different cultures. If Annabel could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, she would MOST likely choose to work with 


A. Carl Rogers.
B. Roger Sperry.
C. John B. Watson.
D. Alfred Adler.

 

153. A recently published case study described an individual who showed obsessive behavior. Recordings of brain activity indicated this same individual also experienced a number of mild epileptic seizures each day. When the epileptic seizures were brought under control using medication, the obsessive behavior also disappeared. The type of psychologist who would be MOST interested in this case study would be one who had 


A. an evolutionary perspective.
B. a cognitive perspective.
C. a behavioral perspective.
D. a biological perspective.

 

154. The research psychologists who are MOST likely to conduct research studies using animals are those who have 


A. a behavioral or biological perspective.
B. a behavioral or psychoanalytic perspective.
C. a biological or psychoanalytic perspective.
D. a psychoanalytic or cognitive perspective.

 

155. Which pair of terms both reflect the observation that "psychology returned to its roots" in the latter part of the 20th century? 


A. cultural perspective and biological perspective
B. biological perspective and humanism
C. cognitive perspective and humanism
D. cognitive perspective and biological perspective

 

156. A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s which reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is 


A. cognitive perspective.
B. mental perspective.
C. philosophical perspective.
D. biological perspective.

 

157. The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on 


A. the role of the unconscious.
B. internal mental events.
C. the interrelations among the mind, body and behavior.
D. the adaptive value of a behavior.

 

158. Decision making, reasoning, problem solving, and language are topics MOST likely to be studied by 


A. evolutionary psychologists.
B. biological psychologists.
C. cognitive psychologists.
D. behavioral psychologists.

 

159. A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s which reflects a renewed interest in the study of the physiological bases of behavior that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the 


A. cognitive perspective.
B. mental perspective.
C. philosophical perspective.
D. biological perspective.

 

160. Which of the following psychological perspectives is MOST likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior? 


A. evolutionary perspective
B. biological perspective
C. cognitive perspective
D. behavioral perspective

 

161. The biological perspective contends that to fully understand behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on 


A. the role of the unconscious.
B. internal mental events.
C. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior.
D. the adaptive value of a behavior.

 

162. Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez's beliefs are MOST consistent with the 


A. behavioral perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. biological perspective.
D. humanistic perspective.

 

163. The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is called 


A. racism.
B. egocentrism.
C. ethnocentrism.
D. functionalism.

 

164. Historically, most of psychology's research has been conducted in 


A. China.
B. Japan.
C. Mexico.
D. the United States.

 

165. Which of the following groups is MOST likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research? 


A. a variety of individuals
B. lower-class males
C. lower-class males and females
D. middle- and upper-class white males

 

166. The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is known as 


A. introspection.
B. ethnocentrism.
C. humanism.
D. positive psychology.

 

167. Which of the following is cited in the textbook as a reason for the narrow focus of Western psychology? 


A. Cross-cultural research is time-consuming and costly.
B. Psychology traditionally has emphasized the study of groups rather than individuals.
C. Anthropologists are more research-oriented than psychologists.
D. The influence of behaviorism narrowed the perspective of Western psychologists.

 

168. The recent increased interest in research dealing with "cultural" variables in psychology can be attributed to all EXCEPT which of the following? 


A. depersonalization of human beings by modern psychology
B. various groups (such as civil rights groups, women's groups) arguing that society has paid little attention to human diversity
C. increased ethnic diversity in the United States
D. increased contact with non-Western cultures due to advances in communication and travel

 

169. Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counseling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates 


A. the biological determinants of behavior.
B. the impact of evolutionary factors in psychological functioning.
C. the role of cultural factors in psychological processes.
D. psychometrics and cognitive psychology.

 

170. Historically, which of the following groups of individuals has been MOST frequently used as subjects in psychological research? 


A. white women
B. white men
C. black men
D. immigrant men and women

 

171. Recently Western psychologists have started to devote more attention to ____ as a determinant of behavior. 


A. intelligence
B. unconscious
C. feelings
D. culture

 

172. Psychologists who focus attention on cultural diversity are LEAST likely to 


A. document differences among varying cultures.
B. document similarities among varying cultures.
C. identify deficiencies in other cultures.
D. test the generality of earlier findings to other cultures.

 

173. The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is 


A. clinical psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. physiological psychology.

 

174. Professor Immel believes that behaviors that are predominant in certain species probably serve some adaptive function. Professor Immel's beliefs are MOST consistent with the 


A. behavioral perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. humanistic perspective.
D. evolutionary perspective.

 

175. The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms' success in 


A. establishing a territory.
B. locating a source of food.
C. passing on their genes to the next generation.
D. aggressive interactions with members of other species.

 

176. Currently a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks that, in part, this may be due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are MOST consistent with those of the 


A. cultural perspective in psychology.
B. cognitive perspective in psychology.
C. behavioral perspective in psychology.
D. evolutionary perspective in psychology.

 

177. Evolutionary psychologists would MOST likely explain females' greater emphasis on potential mates' economic resources by suggesting that it 


A. increases resources available for their children.
B. supports their innate need for a large territory.
C. allows them to acquire a greater variety of time-saving appliances.
D. increases females' confidence about the maternity of their children.

 

178. Which of the following early psychologists would be MOST likely to endorse the tenets of evolutionary psychology? 


A. Sigmund Freud
B. William James
C. John Watson
D. Wilhelm Wundt

 

179. The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of evolutionary psychology is 


A. Alfred Binet.
B. David Buss.
C. Roger Sperry.
D. James Olds.

 

180. Which of the following statements BEST reflects the current thinking about evolutionary psychology? 


A. It is a widely accepted approach to the study of human behavior.
B. It is a simplistic rehash of ideas proposed by Charles Darwin over 140 years ago.
C. It is a radical perspective supported by a small group of "revolutionary" scientists.
D. It is a thought-provoking, innovative perspective that is rapidly gaining influence.

 

181. The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of positive psychology is 


A. David Buss.
B. Roger Sperry.
C. James Olds.
D. Martin Seligman.

 

182. Some researchers have suggested that people currently tend to sleep during periods of darkness because sleeping under these conditions was an adaptive behavior that helped to increase survival among early humans. This is the type of argument that would MOST likely be made by psychologists who take the 


A. cognitive perspective in psychology.
B. evolutionary perspective in psychology.
C. biological perspective in psychology.
D. behavioral perspective in psychology.

 

183. Damion wants to investigate whether altruistic behavior in a specific species of tropical birds gives the birds an evolutionary advantage. If Damion could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, he would MOST likely choose to work with 


A. Herbert Simon.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. David Buss.
D. Carl Jung.

 

184. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "psychology has historically devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness and how to heal suffering." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by 


A. Martin Seligman.
B. Richard Buss.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Carl Rogers.

 

185. The viewpoint in psychology that uses theory and research to understand the adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence is known as 


A. physiological psychology.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. positive psychology.
D. applied psychology.

 

186. Evolutionary psychology examines ____ processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. 


A. physiological
B. behavioral
C. cultural
D. cognitive

 

187. If you wonder about the adaptive purpose of a common behavior (such as toddlers following their mothers around or teenagers wanting more independence from their parents) your wondering would be MOST consistent with the principles of 


A. cultural psychology.
B. humanism.
C. biological psychology.
D. evolutionary psychology.

 

188. The emerging field in psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human experience is 


A. humanism.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. positive psychology.
D. creative psychology.

 

189. Which of the following is NOT a major area of interest in the positive psychology movement? 


A. positive subjective experiences
B. positive life events
C. positive institutions and communities
D. positive individual traits

 

190. Topics such as courage, tolerance, creativity, and integrity reflect the interest of the positive psychology movement on the study of 


A. positive subjective experiences.
B. positive individual traits.
C. positive institutions and communities.
D. positive life events.

 

191. According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both 


A. a science and a profession.
B. a theory and an academic discipline.
C. a school of thought and an occupation.
D. a cognitive process and an undergraduate major.

 

192. Over the last 50 years membership in the American Psychological Association has 


A. decreased.
B. remained the same.
C. increased dramatically.
D. first increased and then decreased.

 

193. Of all doctoral degrees awarded in the sciences and humanities, psychology accounts for about 


A. 5%.
B. 9%.
C. 20%.
D. 50%.

 

194. According to your textbook, the work settings for approximately 28% of psychologists are 


A. hospitals and nursing homes.
B. business and industry.
C. colleges and universities.
D. police departments and schools.

 

195. One of the key changes that has occurred in psychology over time is that 


A. psychology has become increasingly less applied in its focus.
B. the number of clinicians is decreasing.
C. psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.
D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

 

196. The text's definition of psychology states that psychology is both a science and a(n) 


A. art.
B. academic subject.
C. profession.
D. career.

 

197. Which of the following is NOT included in the text's definition of psychology? 


A. psychology is a profession that solves practical problems
B. psychology studies behavior including physiological and cognitive processes
C. psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
D. psychology is a science

 

198. Colleges and universities are the primary work setting for approximately ____ of American psychologists. 


A. 10 percent
B. 30 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 70 percent

 

199. Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a major area of research in psychology? 


A. physiological psychology
B. cognitive psychology
C. industrial/organizational psychology
D. social psychology

 

200. A psychologist whose major interest focuses on how behavior changes as a function of age would probably be considered a 


A. physiological psychologist.
B. developmental psychologist.
C. social psychologist.
D. cognitive psychologist.

 

201. Which of the following is likely to be of MOST interest to a developmental psychologist? 


A. the dynamics of small group decision making
B. the effect of anxiety on problem-solving behavior
C. the use of physical exercise as a means of combating depression
D. the effects on children of being raised in a single-parent home

 

202. A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in 


A. developmental psychology.
B. experimental psychology.
C. cognitive psychology.
D. psychometrics.

 

203. Larry is a graduate student whose major area of interest is social psychology. You should expect that Larry is MOST interested in 


A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
C. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
D. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.

 

204. Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. How stable is personality over the lifespan?
B. Why do we like some people and not others?
C. What effect does anxiety have on test performance?
D. Do depressed people think differently than non-depressed people?

 

205. Which of the following would NOT be expected of an experimental psychologist? 


A. to study the effects of reward on learning
B. to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and task performance
C. to conduct psychotherapy
D. to study the factors that motivate behavior

 

206. Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behavior? 


A. developmental psychology
B. physiological psychology
C. psychometrics
D. cognitive psychology

 

207. Phillip is a graduate student whose major area of interest is physiological psychology. You should expect that Phillip is MOST interested in 


A. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
B. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
C. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.
D. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.

 

208. Which of the following would a physiological psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. How do hormones affect behavior?
B. Why do we like some people and not others?
C. What effect does reward have on learning?
D. What are the stages of problem solving?

 

209. A psychologist who studies information processing and decision making would probably be considered a 


A. physiological psychologist.
B. developmental psychologist.
C. social psychologist.
D. cognitive psychologist.

 

210. A cognitive psychologist is MOST likely to be interested in 


A. behavior in small groups.
B. information processing.
C. the adolescent identity crisis.
D. interpersonal attraction.

 

211. Ramon is a graduate student whose major area of interest is cognitive psychology. You should expect that Ramon is MOST interested in 


A. understanding mental processes such as memory and learning.
B. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
D. how people relate to each other and influence each other.

 

212. Brooke is a graduate student whose major area of interest is in describing and understanding the consistency in people's behavior. Which research is Brooke MOST likely to specialize in? 


A. social psychology
B. personality psychology
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

213. Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people's behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers' research specialization? 


A. experimental psychology
B. personality psychology
C. psychometrics
D. social psychology

 

214. Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in 


A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
D. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.

 

215. Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques? 


A. social psychology
B. psychometrics
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

216. A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics would MOST likely be concerned with which of the following? 


A. developing tests
B. counseling
C. animal experimentation
D. the relationship between brain chemistry and behavior

 

217. Pablo is a graduate student whose major area of interest is the measurement of behavior and capacities and the development of psychological tests. Which research is Pablo MOST likely to specialize in? 


A. social psychology
B. psychometrics
C. cognitive psychology
D. physiological psychology

 

218. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization in research psychology? 


A. psychometrics
B. industrial/organizational
C. personality
D. social

 

219. Currently, the two largest areas of specialization in research-oriented psychology are 


A. clinical and counseling.
B. developmental and clinical.
C. developmental and social.
D. social and counseling.

 

220. ____ psychologists are concerned with changes in behavior throughout the life span. 


A. Developmental
B. Personality
C. Social
D. Cognitive

 

221. A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women towards traditional sex roles were studied. MOST likely the researcher was 


A. a cognitive psychologist.
B. a counseling psychologist.
C. a developmental psychologist.
D. a social psychologist.

 

222. A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics is MOST likely to be interested in 


A. the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits.
B. explaining development across the life span.
C. conducting psychotherapy.
D. the development of techniques to monitor the functioning of the nervous system.

 

223. The area of research specialization in psychology that studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, motivation) is 


A. psychometrics.
B. experimental.
C. educational.
D. cognitive.

 

224. Jane's thyroid gland has become inactive and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by 


A. clinical psychologists.
B. medical psychologists.
C. experimental psychologists.
D. physiological psychologists.

 

225. Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle-school children and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as 


A. cognitive psychology.
B. psychometrics.
C. educational psychology.
D. developmental psychology.

 

226. The focus of research for educational psychology is 


A. developmental outcomes from ages six through eighteen.
B. how people learn and the best way to teach them.
C. interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior.
D. describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior.

 

227. The area of psychological research that is MOST interested in the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness is 


A. health psychology.
B. physiological psychology.
C. social psychology.
D. psychiatry.

 

228. The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is 


A. less than 3%.
B. just over 25%.
C. shrinking each year.
D. approximately 10%.

 

229. Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology? 


A. psychometrics
B. counseling psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. developmental psychology

 

230. Which of the following areas is MOST similar to clinical psychology? 


A. social psychology
B. school psychology
C. industrial psychology
D. counseling psychology

 

231. Which of the following areas is LEAST likely to be considered an applied area of psychology? 


A. industrial psychology
B. clinical psychology
C. educational psychology
D. developmental psychology

 

232. Dr. Lopez is a psychologist who evaluates, diagnoses, and treats people with everyday problems of moderate severity. What type of psychologist is Dr. Lopez? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

233. A psychologist who works on trying to increase job satisfaction and productivity in a large company would MOST likely have received training in 


A. clinical psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. educational and school psychology.
D. industrial and organizational psychology.

 

234. Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

235. Dr Hawkins is a psychologist who spends her day working in an elementary school testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school. What type of applied psychologist is Dr. Hawkins? 


A. an educational psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a school psychologist
D. an industrial psychologist

 

236. An industrial/organizational psychologist would be MOST likely to be involved in 


A. providing assistance to people struggling with everyday problems.
B. working to improve employee morale and attitudes.
C. testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school.
D. providing group or individual psychotherapy.

 

237. The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is 


A. clinical psychology.
B. experimental psychology.
C. educational and school psychology.
D. industrial/organizational psychology.

 

238. Kenn is a psychologist who spends the majority of his time assessing or treating elderly people who are showing signs of dementia or who have experienced strokes. Ken would MOST likely describe the focus of his practice as 


A. counseling psychology.
B. psychometrics.
C. clinical neuropsychology.
D. forensic psychology.

 

239. As part of their professional practice, forensic psychologists 


A. strive to promote the cognitive, emotional, and social development of school-age children.
B. apply psychological principles to issues arising in the legal system.
C. are involved in the assessment of people who suffer from central nervous system dysfunctions.
D. are concerned with the measurement of behavior and the development of valid psychological tests.

 

240. A lawyer who wanted to have expert witness testify at a hearing to determine whether or not his client was competent to stand trial would need to contact a psychologist whose specialty was 


A. forensic psychology.
B. clinical neuropsychology.
C. psychometrics.
D. social psychology.

 

241. Not including clinical or counseling psychologists, the two most common specialties in applied psychology are 


A. school psychology and forensic psychology.
B. forensic psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
C. industrial/organizational psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
D. school psychology and industrial/organizational psychology.

 

242. Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders? 


A. a clinical psychologist
B. a counseling psychologist
C. a psychiatrist
D. a physiological psychologist

 

243. Which of the following statements regarding the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist is MOST accurate? 


A. Psychiatrists cannot prescribe drugs.
B. A clinical psychologist has a medical degree.
C. Both clinical psychologists and psychiatrists receive medical training.
D. Clinical psychologists tend to take a non-medical approach to the treatment of psychological disorders.

 

244. A psychiatrist typically has a 


A. Doctorate in Psychology.
B. Medical Degree.
C. Doctorate in Physiology.
D. Doctorate in Education.

 

245. Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization of applied psychology? 


A. school psychology
B. industrial and organizational psychology
C. counseling psychology
D. personality psychology

 

246. An area of specialization in applied psychology that is primarily involved in the treatment of less severe problems of everyday life (such as marriage counseling) is 


A. social psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. cognitive psychology.

 

247. Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers? 


A. school psychology
B. educational psychology
C. experimental psychology
D. industrial/organizational psychology

 

248. The most widely practiced specialization in applied psychology is 


A. industrial/organizational psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. developmental psychology.

 

249. ____ psychologists work in schools and primarily help individual children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems. 


A. School
B. Educational
C. Counseling
D. Social

 

250. As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____ would be MOST likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale. 


A. social psychologist
B. educational psychologist
C. industrial/organizational psychologist
D. clinical psychologist

 




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