Chapter 1 – Exploring Child Development



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Chapter 11: Intervention: Overview

Chapter 11 – Intervention: Overview



Chapter Overview
Once an accurate and thorough assessment has been performed, and we have a diagnosis, we move on to providing intervention. There are various forms of interventions: psychopharmacological, psychotherapy, herbal, self-help, and other alternative modes of treatment. While students will not be formally practicing for quite some time, this introduction into intervention allows them to consider the menu of treatment choices to promote their academic journey. Ethical considerations, a theme throughout the text, are discussed and are a guide to the delivery of psychological services. Chapter 11 introduces us to empirically based interventions and provides the backbone for the next three chapters. Students should begin to consider how these interventions affect the lives of patients and impact clinicians as well.
Chapter Contents

  • Introduction

  • The Ethics of Intervention

  • Theoretical Approaches

      • Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapies

      • Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression

      • Process-Experiential Therapies

      • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

  • Seeking Psychological Treatment

  • The Duration and Impact of Psychotherapy

  • Alternative Modes of Service Delivery

  • Summary and Conclusions


Learning Objectives


  1. What are the ethical considerations of intervention?

  2. Discuss the benefits of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies?

  3. How does interpersonal psychotherapy benefit patients?

  4. Discuss the role of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression.

  5. What are the roots of the process-experiential therapies?

  6. Why has there been a resurgence of the process-experiential therapies?

  7. Why are cognitive-behavioral therapies so popular?

  8. Which is the most empirical-validated psychotherapy?

  9. What are the phases of cognitive-behavioral therapy?

  10. Who seeks psychological treatment?

  11. What does psychotherapist mean?

  12. How can patients be sure their therapist is qualified?

  13. How long does psychotherapy last and does it work?

  14. What other modes of service delivery are there for therapies?


Up for Discussion


  1. Does the economy play a role in the increase or decrease of psychological services?

  2. What are the challenges of seeking out psychological services?

  3. How can therapists violate ethics during treatment of a patient?

  4. If you were seeking out therapy, what questions would you ask your therapist?

  5. Why would insurance companies reimburse for cognitive-behavioral therapies over psychodynamic therapies?

  6. Why are cognitive-behavioral therapies more preferred in the field?

  7. Which therapy would you consider for yourself? What would you recommend?

  8. When would interpersonal psychotherapy not be advised?

  9. As a therapist, would you recommend psychotherapy, medications, or both? Which is most effective?

  10. Why do patients typically turn to medications rather than psychotherapy?

  11. What are the challenges for a patient to continue with psychotherapy?

  12. Should group therapy be a substitute for individual psychotherapy?

  13. What are the risks of relying on self-help books and tapes?

  14. What are the benefits of computer therapy and what is missing?

  15. Is therapy better explained as a form of reparenting?


Out-of-Class Activities


  1. Have students visit the American Psychological Association website on the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and the Code of Conduct. Have them select the sections relevant to treatment and therapy, explain how one could violate a code, and discuss the consequences of such a violation. Have them consider why these particular sections are there.




  1. Have students research a therapy of their choice and provide an analysis of why this treatment would be effective and for which disorders. They should be prepared to defend their choice in class.




  1. Psychotherapy can be challenging for a patient. Students should assume the role of therapist and write up ways in which they can encourage patients to stay with their treatment. They should try to incorporate prevention techniques from Chapter 11 in their answer.




  1. Students can look up numerous group therapies and may want to attend one, with the permission of the group facilitator. They should write up their reactions, the effectiveness of the group, the group support, and the overall differences and similarities to one-on-one counseling.



Web Links
Beating the Blues computer-based treatment of anxiety and depression:

http://www.beatingtheblues.co.uk/patients/introduction/whatisit
The FearFighter Internet-based treatment of phobias and panic, and other Internet-based treat­ments:

http://www.ccbt.co.uk/
Some additional websites describing virtual reality treatments and treatment-related research. Keep in mind the importance of empirical evidence in reviewing self-help books and websites offer­ing treatment options:
http://www.virtuallybetter.com
http://www.vrphobia.com/
http://w3.uqo.ca/cyberpsy/en/index_en.htm

Video Suggestions
Aaron T. Beck (DVD, color, 60 min.) In this video, Philip Kendall interviews Aaron Beck, the pioneer of cognitive-behavioral therapy and developer of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck discusses the development of behavioral and cognitive therapies. 2001, Insight Media.
Cognitive Counseling (DVD, color, 60 min.) Presenting cognitive strategies for clients across the life span, this DVD features Jan Holden detailing the steps of her cognitive counseling routine. It covers evaluation of distorted versus viable thinking, examination of evidence, cost-benefit analysis, thought stopping, and cognitive and behavioral rehearsal. 2004, Insight Media.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy With John Krumboltz (DVD, color, 100 min.)

In this DVD, John Krumboltz discusses cognitive-behavioral therapy and shows how it involves learning to shape one’s life through the modification of thoughts and behaviors. The program includes an actual counseling session. 1998, Insight Media.


Mixed Anxiety and Depression: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach (DVD, color, 60 min.) In this program, Donald Meichenbaum demonstrates his approach to treating comorbid disorders. He shows how to establish therapeutic priorities, develop a treatment plan, and help clients reconceptualize complaints as problems with solutions. 1996, Insight Media.
Psychodynamic Counseling and Psychotherapy (DVD, color, 90 min.) This DVD describes key strategies drawn from psychodynamic and interpersonal approaches that can be used to explore relational patterns and change the ways in which clients’ thoughts, actions, and feelings are shaped by interpersonal relationships. 2004, Insight Media.
Psychotherapy (DVD, color, 30 min.) This video examines psychodynamic, Rational-Emotive, humanistic, and behavioral approaches to treating psychological disorders. It features demonstrations by and interviews with Hans Strupp, Albert Ellis, Rollo May, and Enrico Jones. From Annenberg/CPB, 1990, Insight Media.
Therapies (DVD, color, 30 min.) This DVD examines four approaches to therapy, explains their underlying theories, and elucidates their methods. It looks at psychoanalysis, client-centered therapy, and behavioral therapy and contrasts the forms of cognitive therapy developed by Beck and Ellis. 2002, Insight Media.
Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (DVD, color, 75 min.) Featuring Hanna Levenson, this DVD demonstrates Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) with a 74-year-old man. It shows how TLDP integrates psychodynamic, interpersonal, cognitive-behavioral, and systems approaches and teaches how to assess a client, develop and maintain a treatment focus, and terminate treatment.1998, Insight Media.
Suggested Readings
Norcross, J. C., Santrock, J. W., Campbell, L. F., Smith, T. P., Sommer, R., & Zuckerman. (2003). Authoritative guide to self-help resources in mental health (rev. ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Wood, J. C. (2007). Getting help: The complete and authoritative guide to self-assessment and treatment of mental health problems. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.



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