Bibliographic Referencing

Citing references in the text

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Citing references in the text

a) References are made from the text of the paper to the full details of the work in the reference list in the following manner:
Williams (1995, p.45) compared personality disorders ...
b) When an author, or group of authors, has more than one publication in the same year a lower case letter is added to the date. For example:
In two recent studies (Harding, 1986a, p.80; Harding, 1986b, p.138) it was suggested that ...
c) Multiple author citations

  • With two authors both names should be listed in each citation e.g. (Duncan & Goddard, 2003, p.99)

  • With three to five authors name all authors the first time, then use et al. (and others). For example: the first time it would be (Moore, Estrich, McGillis & Spelman 1984, p.33) and subsequent references to the same publication would use (Moore et al.).

  • For six or more authors, use et al. after the first author in all occurrences.

d) When a source has no author, cite the first two or three words of the title followed by the year. For example:
... in the recent book (Encyclopaedia of psychology, 1991, p.62) ...
... in this article ("Individual differences," 1993, p.12) ...
- follow this example for web pages where no author is given

However, if the author is designated as "Anonymous", cite the word Anonymous in your text e.g. (Anonymous, 1993, p.116).

Note: Underline or italicize the title of a journal or book and use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter.
e) When using quotations in your text observe the following examples:

He stated, "The relative importance of the systems may nevertheless remain in approximately the same proportion" (Gardner, 1973, p.41)

Smith (1991) found that "...there is no evidence that chimpanzees can produce a drawing and discern the object represented in it..." (p.84)
f) If you cite a work that you discovered in another work, observe the following examples:

Smith (1970, p.27) cites Brown (1967) as finding ...

Brown (1967), cited by Smith (1970, p.27), found ...
It was found (Brown, 1967, cited by Smith, 1970, p.27) that ...


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