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Introduction to Psychology/States of Consciousness
1
Introduction to Psychology/States of
Consciousness
After completing this chapter you should be able to. Explain daydreaming. Describe the stages of sleep. Explain why REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep. Define the sleep disorders of insomnia, narcolepsy, and apnea.
5. Explain the theories of the nature and content of dreams. Explain the difference between substance abuse and substance dependence. Explain the effect of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. List two negative effects of each of the following drugs alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, the opiates, cocaine, and the hallucinogens. Explain the biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors related to addiction. Describe meditation and hypnosis.
Consciousness
Consciousness is the awareness we have of ourselves and our environment. Different states of consciousness are associated with different patterns of brainwaves. Brainwaves are tracings of electrical activity that is going on in the brain. Scientists record brainwaves using an electroencephalograph (EEG, which monitors electrical activity through electrodes placed on the scalp. There are four main types of brainwaves alpha, beta, theta, and delta each with a corresponding mental state:



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