1a education in czech republic, great britain and usa



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Soil pollution is when soil can become contaminated as a result of industrial waste, domestic rubbish, agriculture, redioactive substances.

Noise poses a considerable problem for many people. It results in stress, lack of concentration, defective hearing or sleeplessness. Neighbourhood noise can be tackled in various ways. First of all, we should be considerate to one another. Noise from new motor vehicles and aircraft is regulated. Airport service are restricted at night.

Environmental protection should also include animal and plant protection because the balance of species of plants and animals has also been affected by human activities. Some animals are protected (bats, badgers), other (otters, some species of birds, such as owls) are bred in captivity for release in the wild so they have the best chance of survival. The introduction of new species should be strictly or even prohibited, because their increase in number can easily slip out of control. The establishment of national parks and nature reserves provide protection and also provide opportunities for outdoor recreation.

The way how to personally protect the environment is save water (have a shower rather than a bath), save energy (switch off the light when leaving), sort out waste and put it into containers if they are provided, compost kitchen garbage, use deodorant sprays without CFC gases, put litter only into litter bins, not in the street, not be noisy in the woods, not use many fertilizers in the garden, buy things that have less packaging, use public transport or unleaded petrol.

At least I would like to say, that we should preserve and restore the quality of our environment. We must keep our planet habitable not only for the present generation but also for the future one. It would be necessary to develop more public information and interest. It wouldn’t be right to adapt people to pollution and noise. It would be a progressive degeneration of the quality of human life.
4a) london, his history and sights

London is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. It is situated on the river Thames in south-east England. Its population with suburbs was 12 million, its size is about 1,600 sq km. It includes the City of London and 32 boroughs. London is the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government and the Supreme Court. It also contains many important museums, galleries, theatres and many historical buildings and parks.

The river Thames played a vital part in establishing Britain as the world’s mightiest trading nation. Docks were developed along the riverbanks to the East including St. Katherine’s Dock (built in 1828) close to the Tower of London. For more than a century it bustled with commercial activity, now it has been transformed into a marina with a display of historic ships.

History. The earliest inhabitants here were in the Stone Age. Before Christ there was a Celtic settlement called Llyndin (= lonely port) on the left bank of the Thames. Romans stayed here from 55 BC, only about, 43 AD. Romans made a wall around the city with a bridge, very good streets and watered places. When they left the island in the fifth century, it remained the capital of the Britons. It kept its importance during the Anglo-Saxon times and later during the reign of the Danish kings in the 10th and 11th centuries. After the Roman occupation of England the most important port Londinium originated here. But in that time was the capital Winchester. However London is the richest city every time.

During the rule of Germanic tribes Lundenevic ( = London) became the capital of the kingdom Essex and since 1066 it has been the capital of the English Kingdom. During the 12th century reign of Norman kings, William the Conqueror was the first to come, the royal court moved from Winchester, the former capital, to London, for ever. William win in the battle at Hastings and he beated up the last Anglo-Saxon king Harold II.

The city continued to grow and flourish and gradually extended beyond its walls to absorb the originally separate Westminster. The 16th century establishment of the trading companies and the Royal Exchange (1565) contributed to the rapid economic rise of London.

In 1665 was in London epidemic of Plague. After the Great Fire in 1666 London developed into a city of world-wide fame. In the 19th century it was the largest city of the world, the largest port and the most important finical centre. During World War II it was heavily damaged by the German bombing.

The kings of England often needed money. So they moved their capital close to London. But they didn’t want to live in London itself. It was dirty, smelly and dangerous city. So they made their capital at Westminster. At first the two cities of London and Westminster were separated and there were fields between them. But slowly they grew into one city. The kings built their city to the west of the city, because the prevailing wind in Britain is from the west. The wind blew all the smells from the post and the factories towards the east. As the city grew, the rich people lived in the West End and the poor people lived in the East End. This is changing now, because the docks and a lot of industries in the East End have closed. Now Dockland is becoming a new financial centre and a fashionable place to live.




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