1a education in czech republic, great britain and usa



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1a) EDUCATION IN CZECH REPUBLIC, GREAT BRITAIN AND USA

Great Britain

class school age




Nursery school, Playground 3

or Kindergarten (optional) 4

reception class Infant C E 5

year 1 School O D 6

year 2 Primary M U 7 (1st standard assessment test)

year 3 Junior School P C 8

year 4 School U A 9

year 5 L T 10

year 6 S I 11 (2nd standard assessment test)

year 7 O O 12

year 8 Secondary R N 13

year 9 School Y 14(3rd standard assessment test)

year 10 (High School) 15(start studying subjects for GCSEs)

year 11 16 (take GCSEs)


year 12 Sixth form college 17 (start studying for A-levels)

year 13 (further education, college) 18 (take A-levels)

first year (fresher) University or Polytechnic 19

second year 20

third/final year 21




postgraduate University 22

23
In Britain all children have to go to school between the ages of 5 and 16. Infant Schools and Junior Schools are Primary Schools and are frequently in the same building.

In England and Wales the subjects taught in school are laid down by the National Curriculum, which was introduced in 1988 and sets out in detail the subject that children should study and the levels of achievement they should reach by the ages of 7, 11, 14 and 16, when they are tested (English, Maths, Sciences, Technology, History, Geography, Music, Art, Physical Education). Between the ages of 14 and 16, pupils study for their GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) exams. Here is 7-point scale :A-G. Pupils must take English Language, Maths and Science for GCSE as well as a half GCSE in a foreign language and Technology. In addition, they must also be taught Physical Education, Religious Education and Sex Education, although they do not take exams in these subjects.

At the age of 16, pupils can leave school. If pupils stay on, they usually take A (Advanced) levels in the age of 18. Pupils taking A levels study traditional subjects, such as French, Physics or History, usually not more than 3 subjects. To go to university, pupils usually need 2 or 3 A levels.

Whereas British school usually have prayers and religious instruction.

The National Curriculum does not apply in Scotland, where each school decides what subjects it will teach. In Scotland students take the SCE examinations. A year later, they can take examinations called Highers, after which they can either go straight to a university or spend a further year at school and take the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies. In Scotland the university system is different to that in England and Wales. Courses usually last four years rather than three and students study a larger number of subjects as part of their degree.

In Britain, there are no formal dances or social occasion associated with school life. Some schools have a Speech day at the end of the school year when prizes are given to the best students and speeches are made by the head teacher and sometimes an invited guest. However, in many British school students and teachers organize informal dances for the older students.

The VI form classes may be in the same building as the High school but often there are VI form colleges in the centre of towns.

Most secondary schools in Britain are comprehensive school. There go about ninety per cent children after primary school. Comprehensive schools are state schools, which take children of all abilities. They are free and boys and girls are educated together. About six per cent of students go to grammar school, where they offer academic education and which take only students who pass an exam at the age of eleven.

About seven per cent of students go to private schools. Theses schools do not receive any money from the state: parents pay for their children to go to school instead. The most expensive private schools are called public schools. Most of these are single-sex boarding schools and students can live there during term-time. Public schools are in Eaton, Harrow and Rugby. Another fee-paying are independent schools. Children can also attend church schools.

Most pupils in British schools wear school uniform. The favourite colours for it are blue, grey, black and maroon. Many of the schools are now less strict about wearing uniforms. The school decides what colours must be worn. The uniform normally consists of a shirt, blouse, sweater and blazer for boys. Both have ties

The school day generally starts at 9:00 a.m. for all students of all ages in the state schools. Every student belongs to a class or form. Each form has a form teacher and a form room. Every morning the form meets in the form room while the form teacher marks the register (list of students’ names) to check who is not at school. Sometimes there is an assembly (a short meeting of the whole school) in the school hall. Afterwards, the students go to the rooms where they have theirs classes.

At midday, there is a long break. Students often have school dinners. In the afternoon, they have some more classes. School finishes around 4 o’clock, but that’s not the end of the school day. At home, the students have to do their homework.

Cheating is very rare in Britain, if someone is found cheating; he will fail his exam and be in serious trouble. Exams are very closely supervised and rules about talking, looking at someone else’s work and taking papers into the exam are very strictly kept.

It is customary for teacher in high school to always teach on the same room because of the resources needed for the lessons. As there is no time allowed on the timetable between one lesson and the next, pupils have to move quickly to their next lesson.

Throughout the British Isles the schools use a three term pattern:

Autumn Term = September - Christmas

Spring Term = January - Easter

Summer Term = Easter - July

Another 4% of British children don’t go to school at all. By law parents have the right to educate their children at home, if they can show they can do it properly. Usually children who have been educated at home go to secondary school at 14 in time to prepare for the main state exams, the GCSE which pupils take at 16.

At the age of 18 there are a variety of educational establishments for post-eighteen year olds: Universities or Polytechnics which recently have been renamed as universities. The basic qualification for university admission is the GCSE, A-level qualification. There are 5 grades of pass - A,B,C,D,E. But as there are more applications for places at universities, the entry is competitive. The competition to get to one of Britain’s universities is fierce and not everyone who gets A-level can go.

Students apply for universities months before they take A-levels. They come to a personal interview. The applicants who have been most successful in their A-levels or who make a good personal impression are accepted. The more popular the university, the higher the grades it will ask for.

Universities offer three- and four-year degree courses, colleges of higher education offer two-year HND (Higher national Diploma) courses, as well as degree courses.

A degree is a qualification you get from university when you pass your final exams. You are then awarded a BA (Bachelor of Arts), BSc (Bachelor of Science) or Bed (Bachelor of Education).

Undergraduates, students who are studying for degrees, go to lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials (seminars): lessons in groups of then or more when the students discuss their work with the lecturer.

Most British students choose to go to university a long way from their home town: they want to be independent, to live away from home and develop new interests.

Not all students study full-time at university or college. Many of them combine their studies with work.

There are three groups of English universities:


  1. Oxford and Cambridge - They are founded in the 12th and 13th century and are built of stone. They are the oldest British universities and also the most prestigious ones. The have the highest academic reputation and are most highly regarded. Many Oxbridge students come from public schools and graduates from O. and C. often become influential and powerful in British society.

Most of their colleges are built around courtyards called quads with lawns in the centre. Oxford is situated on the Thames, Cambridge lies on the River Cam.

Oxford and Cambridge are collections of independent colleges. Each of them has its own Dean, chapel, dining hall, library and its own atmosphere.

Annually the two universities compete in a rowing race held on the Thames in London. The Boat Race takes place in March.

Punting is a common picture you can see both in Cambridge and Oxford. It is very popular in these ancients seats of learning.



  1. Redbrick universities - They are founded in the 19th century and built of red brick. For example in London, Durham and Manchester they provided technological training in industrial areas. Another are founded in the 20th century and they are in Bristol, Liverpool and Birmingham.

  2. Universities opened after 1960 - Sussex in Brighton, Kent in Canterbury

The Open University established in 1969 is for adults.
USA

class school age




Nursery school 3

(optional) 4

reception class Kindergarten 5

first grade 6

second grade 7

third grade Elementary 8

fourth grade School 9

fifth grade 10

sixth grade 11

seventh grade Junior High 12

eight grade School 13

ninth grade (freshman) 14

tenth grade (sophomore) Senior High 15

eleventh grade (junior) School 16

twelfth grade (senior) 17




freshman 18

sophomore College 19

junior 20

senior 21


Graduate 22

School 23
In the US children must go to school from the age of 6 to between the ages of 14 and 16, depending on the state they live in.

The subjects taught are decided by national and local governments.

American school are not allowed to include prayers or to teach religious beliefs.

In the US school exams are not as important as they are in Britain. Students in High schools do have exams at the end of their last two years, but these final exams are considered along with the work that the student have done during the school years.

As well as exams at school, American high school students who wish to go to college also take Sats, national exams. A student’s Sat results are presented to colleges when students apply for entry, along with a record of the student’s achievements at high school.

In America high schools there is a formal ceremony for Graduation (=completion of high school). Students wear a special cap and gown and receive a diploma from the head of the school. Students often buy a class ring to wear, and a yearbook, containing pictures of their friends and teachers.

There are also special social events at American schools. Sports events are popular, and Cheerleaders lead the school in supporting the school team and singing the school song. At the end of their junior year, at age 17 or 18, student attend the junior-senior prom, a very formal dance which is held in the evening. The girls wear long evening dresses and the boys wear tuxedos.




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